Dictynidae

Female Dictyna arundinacea, copyright Robin Rigby.

Belongs within: Neocribellatae.

The Dictynidae are a varied group of spiders found worldwide. The Dictyninae construct mesh-like webs on vegetation whereas the Cicurininae and Tricholathysinae are ground-dwellers. The Cicurininae have a reduced cribellum and reduced anterior median eyes. The cribellum is bipartite in the remaining subfamilies. Tricholathysinae have a pear-shaped carapace and elongate abdomen (Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007).

Characters (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Small; six or eight eyes present (anterior median eyes reduced in Cicurininae); endites converging; legs with three tarsal claws; calamistrum uniseriate; branched tracheae; cribellate, with cribellum wide, or with cribellum reduced; entelegyne.

<==Dictynidae
    |--CicurininaeGC99
    |    |--Lathys Sim. 1884GC99, KK90
    |    |    |--L. alba Koch & Keyserling 1890KK90
    |    |    |--L. humilis (Blackwall 1855)S02 [=Lethia humilisV09]
    |    |    `--L. maculata Koch & Keyserling 1890KK90
    |    `--Cicurina Menge 1869S06
    |         |--C. arcuata Keys. 1887S06
    |         |--C. brevisJVHN90
    |         |--C. cicur (Fabricius 1793)SL14
    |         `--C. pusilla (Sim. 1886)S06
    `--+--Tricholathys [Tricholathysinae]GC99
       |    `--T. spiralis Chamberlin & Ivie 1935S02
       `--DictyninaeGC99
            |--Nigma walckenaeriGC99, V09
            `--Dictyna Sundevall 1833JD-S07
                 |--D. arundinacea Linnaeus 1758S02
                 |--D. borealis Cambr. 1877S06
                 |--D. brevitarsa Emerton 1915PS08
                 |--D. calcarata Banks 1904S02
                 |--D. civicaE95
                 |--D. groenlandica Lenz 1897S06
                 |--D. hamifera Thorell 1872S06
                 |--D. innocens P.-Cambridge 1872S02
                 |--D. keyserlingiS06
                 |--D. latensE95
                 |--D. minutaJVHN90
                 |--D. phylaxJDW90
                 |--D. procera Kulczyński 1901K01
                 |--D. pusillaV09
                 |--D. reticulata Gertsch & Ivie 1936S02
                 |--D. uncinata Thorell 1856S02
                 |--D. urquharti Roewer 1951 (n. d.)PVD10 [=Linyphia decolora Urquhart 1894NS00]
                 |--D. variabilisP-C06
                 |--D. viridissimaP-C06
                 |--D. volucripesE95
                 `--D. volupisE95
Dictynidae incertae sedis:
  Archaeodictyna ulova Griswold & Meikle-Griswold 1987A02
  Devade Simon 1884S02
  MallosJD-S07
    |--M. gregalisJD-S07
    |--M. pallidus Banks 1904S02
    `--M. trivittatusE95
  Viridictyna Forster 1970PVD10
    |--*V. kikkawai Forster 1970PVD10
    |--V. australis Forster 1970PVD10
    |--V. nelsonensis Forster 1970PVD10
    |--V. parva Forster 1970PVD10
    `--V. picata Forster 1970PVD10
  Paradictyna Forster 1970PVD10
    |--*P. rufoflava (Chamberlain 1946)PVD10
    `--P. ilamia Forster 1970PVD10
  Arangina Lehtinen 1967PVD10
    |--*A. cornigera (de Dalmas 1917)PVD10 [=Dictyna cornigeraFF99]
    `--A. pluva Forster 1970PVD10
  Emblyna annulipes (Blackwall 1846)PS08
  AebutinaGC99
  Mexitlia trivittataBS09
  ArgennaD90
  Heterodictyna puellaV09
  Sinodictyna fushunensis Hong 1982S93
  EolathysP92
  HispaniolynaP92
  PalaeodictynaP92
  PalaeolathysP92
  SuccinynaP92
Nomen nudum; Dictyna polarisS06

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A02] Agnarsson, I. 2002. Sharing a web—on the relation of sociality and kleptoparasitism in theridiid spiders (Theridiidae, Araneae). Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 181–188.

[BS09] Blackledge, T. A., N. Scharff, J. A. Coddington, T. Szüts, J. W. Wenzel, C. Y. Hayashi & I. Agnarsson. 2009. Reconstructing web evolution and spider diversification in the molecular era. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (13): 5229–5234.

[D90] Dondale, C. D. 1990. Litter Araneae (Araneida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 477–502. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[E95] Elgar, M. A. 1995. The duration of copulation in spiders: comparative patterns. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 52: 1–11.

[FF99] Forster, R., & L. Forster. 1999. Spiders of New Zealand and their World-wide Kin. University of Otago Press: Dunedin (New Zealand).

[GC99] Griswold, C. E., J. A. Coddington, N. I. Platnick & R. R. Forster. 1999. Towards a phylogeny of entelegyne spiders (Araneae, Araneomorphae, Entelegynae). Journal of Arachnology 27: 53–63.

[JDW90] Jennings, D. T., J. B. Dimond & B. A. Watt. 1990. Population densities of spiders (Araneae) and spruce budworms (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) on foliage of balsam fir and red spruce in east-central Maine. Journal of Arachnology 18: 181–194.

[JVHN90] Jennings, D. T., W. M. Vander Haegen & A. M. Narahara. 1990. A sampling of forest-floor spiders (Araneae) by expellant, Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge, Maine. Journal of Arachnology 18: 173–180.

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[KK90] Koch, L., & E. Keyserling. 1884–1890. Die Arachniden Australiens nach der Natur beschrieben und abgebildet vol. 2. Bauer & Raspe: Nürnberg.

[K01] Kulczyński, V. 1901. Arachnoideák [Arachnoidea]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 311–369. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[NS00] Nicholls, D. C., P. J. Sirvid, S. D. Pollard & M. Walker. 2000. A list of arachnid primary types held in Canterbury Museum. Records of the Canterbury Museum 14: 37–48.

[PVD10] Paquin, P., C. J. Vink & N. Dupérré. 2010. Spiders of New Zealand: annotated family key and species list. Manaaki Whenua Press: Lincoln (New Zealand).

[P-C06] Pickard-Cambridge, O. 1906. The wild fauna and flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Arachnida. Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information, Additional Series 5: 53–65.

[PS08] Pinzón, J., & J. Spence. 2008. Performance of two arboreal pitfall trap designs in sampling cursorial spiders from tree trunks. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 280–286.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[SL14] Samu, F., G. Lengyel, É. Szita, A. Bidló & P. Ódor. 2014. The effect of forest stand characteristics on spider diversity and species composition in deciduous-coniferous mixed forests. Journal of Arachnology 42 (2): 135–141.

[S93] Selden, P. A. 1993. Arthropoda (Aglaspidida, Pycnogonida and Chelicerata). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 297–320. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S02] Selden, P. A. 2002. Missing links between Argyroneta and Cybaeidae revealed by fossil spiders. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 189–200.

[S06] Strand, E. 1906. Die arktischen Araneae, Opiliones und Chernetes. In: Römer, F., & F. Schaudinn (eds) Fauna Arctica. Eine Zusammenstellun der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonder Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pp. 431–478. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the wild fauna and flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

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