Didelphidae

 Central American woolly opossum Caluromys derbianus, photographed by Adam von Haden.

Belongs within: Marsupialia.
Contains: Didelphinae.

The Didelphidae includes the opossums of North and South America (some sources divide them between the Didelphidae sensu stricto and Caluromyidae, but the ‘Caluromyidae’ are probably paraphyletic to the other didelphids). Morphological synapomorphies for the Didelphidae remain uncertain, but the monophyly of this clade is supported by molecular analysis, and side-by-side epididymal sperm-pairing has been found in all species investigated for this trait (Jansa & Voss 2005).

<==Didelphidae [Caluromyidae, Caluromyinae, Pedimana]
    |--Glironia Thomas 1912JV05, C57
    |    |--*G. venusta Thomas 1912 [incl. G. aequatorialis Anthony 1926]C57
    |    `--G. criniger Anthony 1926C57
    `--+--+--DidelphinaeJV05
       |  `--Hyladelphys Voss et al. 2001JV05
       |       `--*H. kalinowskii (Hershkovitz 1992) [=Gracilinanus kalinowskii]JV05
       `--+--Caluromysiops Sanborn 1951JV05, C57
          |    `--*C. irrupta Sanborn 1951C57
          `--Caluromys Allen 1900JV05, C57 [incl. Mallodelphis Thomas 1920C57]
               |--*C. philander (Linnaeus 1758)C57, FS15, C57 [=Didelphis philanderC57, Philander philanderC57]
               |    |--C. p. philander (see below for synonymy)C57
               |    |--C. p. affinis (Wagner 1842) [=Didelphis affinis, Philander philander affinis]C57
               |    `--C. p. dichrurus (Wagner 1842) [=Didelphis dichrura, Philander philander dichrura]C57
               `--+--C. derbianus (Waterhouse 1841)FS15, C57 (see below for synonymy)
                  |    |--C. d. derbianusG69
                  |    `--C. d. aztecusG69
                  `--C. lanatus (Illiger 1815)FS15, C57 (see below for synonymy)
                       |--C. l. lanatus (see below for synonymy)C57
                       |--C. l. cicur (Bangs 1898)C57 (see below for synonymy)
                       |--C. l. ochropus (Wagner 1842) (see below for synonymy)C57
                       `--C. l. ornatus (Tschudi 1845) (see below for synonymy)C57
Didelphidae incertae sedis:
  Thylophorops chapalmensisV91
  Oligobiotherium divisumS32
  Sparassocynus Mercerat 1898 [Sparassocynidae, Sparassocyninae]S74
    |--S. bahiaiS74
    `--S. derivatusS74
  ‘Diaphorodon’ Simpson 1927 non Archer 1869V66
    `--*D. curtus (Marsh 1889) [=Cimolestes curtus]V66
  Zygolestes paranensisM77
  Thylacodon Matthew & Granger 1921SFY02
  ItaboraidelphysCGW04
  MarmosopsisCGW04
  Carolopaulacoutia McKenna & Bell 1997CGW04
  TiulordiaCGW04
  JaskadelphysCGW04
  Sternbergia Paula Couto 1970 [Sternbergiidae]CGW04
  Protalphadon Cifelli 1990SM93
    `--P. lulliG03
  Jaskhadelphys Marshall & de Muizon 1988SM93
  CopedelphysTPG96
    |--C. stevensoniTPG96
    `--C. titanelix (Matthew 1903)S96
  AmphiperatheriumR06
  Coona pattersoniA82

Caluromys derbianus (Waterhouse 1841)FS15, C57 [=Didelphys derbianaC57, C. (Mallodelphis) derbianusC57, Philander laniger derbianusC57; incl. Micoureus antioquiae Matschie 1917C57, Didelphys guayanus Thomas 1899C57, Caluromys laniger guayanusT01, Philander laniger guayanusC57, P. laniger pictus Thomas 1913C57, Caluromys laniger pyrrhus Thomas 1901C57, P. laniger senex Thomas 1913C57]

Caluromys lanatus (Illiger 1815)FS15, C57 [=Didelphis lanataC57, Philander lanataC57; incl. Mallodelphis lanigera hemiura Miranda Ribeiro 1936C57, Micoureus pulcher Matschie 1917C57]

Caluromys lanatus cicur (Bangs 1898)C57 [=Philander cicurC57, C. laniger cicurT01, P. laniger cicurC57, P. laniger cicusC57; incl. Micoureus meridensis Matschie 1917C57]

Caluromys lanatus lanatus (Illiger 1815) [incl. Micoureus cahyensis Matschie 1917, Didelphis lanigera Desmarest 1820, Caluromys (Mallodelphis) laniger, Micoureus laniger, Philander laniger, Mallodelphis lanigera modesta Miranda Ribeiro 1936, Ma. lanigera nattereri Miranda Ribeiro 1936]C57

Caluromys lanatus ochropus (Wagner 1842) [=Didelphys ochropus, C. laniger ochropus, Mallodelphis lanigera ochropus; incl. M. lanigera vitalina Miranda Ribeiro 1936]C57

Caluromys lanatus ornatus (Tschudi 1845) [=Didelphys ornata, C. derbianus ornatus, C. laniger ornatus, Philander laniger ornatus; incl. Micoureus bartletti Matschie 1917, P. laniger jivaro Thomas 1913, M. juninensis Matschie 1917]C57

*Caluromys philander philander (Linnaeus 1758) [incl. Philanser cayopollin Burmeister 1856 non Didelphys cayopollin Schreber 1776, Didelphis longicaudata Pelzeln 1883, Caluromys trinitatis leucurus Thomas 1904, D. macrura Pelzeln 1883, C. trinitatis venezuelae Thomas 1903]C57

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A82] Archer, M. 1982. A review of Miocene thylacinids (Thylacinidae, Marsupialia), the phylogenetic position of the Thylacinidae and the problem of apriorisms in character analysis. In: Archer, M. (ed.) Carnivorous Marsupials vol. 2 pp. 445–476. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales.

[C57] Cabrera, A. 1957. Catalogo de los mamiferos de America del Sur. I (Metatheria—Unguiculata—Carnivora). Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia” e Instituto Nacional de Investigacion de Las Ciencias Naturales, Ciencias Zoológicas 4 (1): 1–307.

[CGW04] Case, J. A., F. J. Goin & M. O. Woodbourne. 2004. “South American” marsupials from the Late Cretaceous of North America and the origin of marsupial cohorts. Journal of Mammalian Evolution 11 (3–4): 223–255.

[FS15] Faurby, S., & J.-C. Svenning. 2015. A species-level phylogeny of all extant and late Quaternary extinct mammals using a novel heuristic-hierarchical Bayesian approach. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 14–26.

[G69] Goodwin, G. G. 1969. Mammals from the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, in the American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 141 (1): 1–269, 40 pls.

[G03] Gordon, C. L. 2003. A first look of estimating body size in dentally conservative marsupials. Journal of Mammalian Evolution 10 (1–2): 1–21.

[JV05] Jansa, S. A., & R. S. Voss. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships of the marsupial genus Hyladelphys based on nuclear gene sequences and morphology. Journal of Mammalogy 86 (5): 853–865.

[M77] Marshall, L. G. 1977. Cladistic analysis of borhyaenoid, dasyuroid, didelphoid, and thylacinid (Marsupialia: Mammalia) affinity. Systematic Zoology 26 (4): 410–425.

[R06] Rose, K. D. 2006. The Beginning of the Age of Mammals. John Hopkins University Press: Baltimore.

[SFY02] Scott, C. S., R. C. Fox & G. P. Youzwyshyn. 2002. New earliest Tiffanian (late Paleocene) mammals from Cochrane 2, southwestern Alberta, Canada. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 47: 691–704.

[S32] Simpson, G. G. 1932. Some new or little-known mammals from the Colpodon beds of Patagonia. American Museum Novitates 575: 1–12.

[S74] Simpson, G. G. 1974. Notes on Didelphidae (Mammalia, Marsupialia) from the Huayquerian (Pliocene) of Argentina. American Museum Novitates 2559: 1–15.

[S96] Storer, J. E. 1996. Eocene-Oligocene faunas of the Cypress Hills Formation, Saskatchewan. In: Prothero, D. R., & R. J. Emry (eds) The Terrestrial Eocene–Oligocene Transition in North America pp. 240–261. Cambridge University Press.

[SM93] Stucky, R. K., & M. C. McKenna. 1993. Mammalia. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 739–771. Chapman & Hall: London.

[TPG96] Tabrum, A. R., D. R. Prothero & D. Garcia. 1996. Magnetostratigraphy and biostratigraphy of the Eocene-Oligocene transition, southwestern Montana. In: Prothero, D. R., & R. J. Emry (eds) The Terrestrial Eocene–Oligocene Transition in North America pp. 278–311. Cambridge University Press.

[T01] Thomas, O. 1901. New South-American Sciuri, Heteromys, Cavia, and Caluromys. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 192–196.

[V91] Valkenburgh, B. van. 1991. Iterative evolution of hypercarnivory in canids (Mammalia: Carnivora): evolutionary interactions among sympatric predators. Paleobiology 17 (4): 340–362.

[V66] Van Valen, L. 1966. Deltatheridia, a new order of mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 132 (1): 1–126.

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