Diplura

Heterojapyx novaezelandae, copyright Bugman-NZ.
Belongs within: Panhexapoda.
Contains: Campodeoidea, Japygidae.

The Diplura are a cosmopolitan group of slender-bodied, wingless, blind hexapods that are mostly found in damp soil under logs and stones (Condé & Pagés 1991).

Characters (from Condé & Pagés 1991): Small to large, narrow-bodied hexapods, mostly unpigmented; eyes absent; antennae moniliform, with intrinsic muscles in the flagellar segments; thorax usually weakly developed; legs 5-segmented; abdomen 10-segmented, with styles and exsertile vesicles on at least some of the segments, gonopore between 8 and 9; cerci variously developed. Larval development epimorphic.

<==Diplura
|  i. s.: Onychojapyx schmidti Pierce 1950 K-P87
|         Testajapyx Kukalová-Peck 1987 [Testajapygidae] K-P87
|           `–*T. thomasi Kukalová-Peck 1987 K-P87
|         Ocellia [Ocelliidae] RJ93
|           `–O. articulicornis RJ93
|–Rhabdura F90
|    |–Campodeoidea F90
|    `–Projapygoidea F90
|         |–Anajapyx Silvestri 1903 [Anajapygidae] F90
|         |    |–*A. vesiculosus W39
|         |    |–A. hermosus Smith 1960 F90
|         |    `–A. menkei F90
|         |–Projapygidae CP91
|         |    |–Projapyx Cook 1899 F90
|         |    |    `–*P. stylifer W39
|         |    `–Symphylurinus Silvestri 1909 F90
|         |         |–*S. grassi W39
|         |         `–S. swani CP91
|         `–Octostigma [Octostigmatidae] P01
|              |–*O. herbivorum [=O. herbivora] P01
|              |–O. sinense [=O. sinensis] P01
|              `–O. spiniferum Pagés 2001 P01
`–Japygoidea [Dicellurata, Japygomorpha] F90
|–Dinjapyx W39 [Dinjapygidae F90, Dinjapyginae]
|–Japygidae CP91
|–Evalljapyx Silvestri 1911 F90 [Evalljapygidae CP91, Evalljapyginae]
|–Heterojapyx CP91 [Heterojapygidae, Heterojapyginae F90]
|    |–H. evansi Wom. 1934 W39
|    |–H. gallardi Till. 1924 W39
|    |–H. novaezelandae W39
|    |–H. soulei RD77
|    |–H. tambourinensis Wom. 1934 W39
|    |–H. tillyardi K-P83
|    `–H. victoriae Silvestri 1910 W39
`–Parajapygidae [Parajapyginae] F90
|–Ectasjapyx W39
`–Parajapyx CP91
|  i. s.: P. emeryanus MG06
|         P. isabellae S62
|         P. swani Wom. 1934 W39
`–P. (Parajapyx) B86
|–P. (P.) botosaneanui Pagés 1975 B86
`–P. (P.) gerlachi Pagés 1967 B86

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B86] Botosaneanu, L. 1986. Insecta: Diplura (avec une note sur les Acari: Nematalycidae). In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) p. 618. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[CP91] Condé, B., & J. Pagés. 1991. Diplura. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 269–271. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[F90] Ferguson, L. M. 1990. Insecta: Diplura. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 951–963. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[K-P83] Kukalová-Peck, J. 1983. Origin of the insect wing and wing articulation from the arthropodan leg. Canadian Journal of Zoology 61: 1618–1669.

[K-P87] Kukalová-Peck, J. 1987. New Carboniferous Diplura, Monura, and Thysanura, the hexapod ground plan, and the role of thoracic side lobes in the origin of wings (Insecta). Canadian Journal of Zoology 65: 2327–2345.

[MG06] Mallatt, J., & G. Giribet. 2006. Further use of nearly complete 28S and 18S rRNA genes to classify Ecdysozoa: 37 more arthropods and a kinorhynch. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40: 772–794.

[P01] Pagés, J. 2001. Notes sur des diploures rabdoures (insectes, aptérygotes) no 2: Octostigma spiniferum sp. n. (Projapygoidea, Octostigmatidae) de Java (Indonésie)—Diplura Genavensia XXV. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 108 (1): 31–39.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S62] Smith, L. M. 1962. Japygidae of South America. 3: Japygidae of Chile. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 273–292.

[W39] Womersley, H. 1939. Primitive Insects of South Australia: Silverfish, springtails, and their allies. South Australian Branch of the British Science Guild: Adelaide.

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