Diptera

 Mating pair of Nymphomyia, from here.

Belongs within: Panorpoidea.
Contains: Tipulomorpha, Neoneura.

The Diptera, flies, are a diverse group of insects characterised by the reduction of the hind pair of wings to small sensory knobs called halteres. The mesothorax is correspondingly enlarged relative to the reduced pro- and metathorax. Rapid movements of the halteres during flight are believed to impart gyroscopic stability, allowing for rapid and agile flight. Mouthparts are adapted into a more or less elongate proboscis for sucking fluid.

Molecular analysis supports recognition of the genus Deuterophlebia, the mountain midges, as sister taxon to the remaining flies (Wiegmann et al. 2011). Deuterophlebia species live as larvae in fast-flowing streams in scattered north temperate regions of Eurasia and North America, with a single questional record from Chile (Kennedy 1981). The adult males are characterised by the possession of remarkably long antennae.

Also associated with fast-flowing streams are the Nymphomyiidae, whose species have strap-like wings with reduced venation and a long fringe. These wings are shed after mating, allowing the coupled individuals to crawl underwater so the females can lay. Similar habits have been inferred for the Jurassic Strashilidae, which have been found in the fossil record as both alate and coupled dealate individuals (Huang et al. 2013). Three genera of nymphomyiids are recognised in the modern fauna, with Nymphomyia and Felicitomyia found in eastern Asia and Palaeodipteron in northeastern North America (Kevan & Cutten 1981).

Synapomorphies (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Pro- and metathorax reduced; hind wings reduced to halteres; labial palps fused into labellum; mandibles reduced; male abdominal spiracle 8 lost; sperm pump present.

<==Diptera (see below for synonymy)
    |--Deuterophlebia [Deuterophlebiidae, Deuterophlebioidea, Deuterophlebiomorpha]WT11
    |    |--D. coloradensisWT11
    |    |--D. inyoensisK81
    |    |--D. nielsoniM81
    |    `--D. nipponica Kitakami 1938I92
    `--+--+--TipulomorphaWT11
       |  `--+--PsychotipinaeBLM02
       |     `--NeoneuraWT11
       `--+--Strashilidae [Nakridletia, Vosilidae]HN13
          |    |--Vosila sinensis Vršanský, Ren & Shih 2010 [incl. Parazila saurica Vršanský, Ren & Shih 2010]HN13
          |    `--Strashila Rasnitsyn 1992HN13
          |         |--*S. incredibilisHN13
          |         `--S. daohugouensis Huang, Nel et al. 2013HN13
          `--Nymphomyiidae [Nymphomyioidea, Nymphomyiomorpha]WT11
               |--Palaeodipteron walkeriM81
               |--FelicitomyiaKC81
               `--NymphomyiaHN13
                    |--*N. albaKC81
                    |--N. dolichopezaWT11
                    |--N. levanidovaeKC81
                    |--N. succinaHN13
                    `--N. walkeriHN13
Diptera incertae sedis:
  ProtendipesO81 [ProtendipedidaeBLM02]
    `--P. huabeiensis Zhang 1986RJ93
  GracilitipulaRJ93 [GracilitipulidaeBLM02]
    `--G. asiatica Hong & Wang 1990RJ93
  ZhangobiidaeBLM02
  EretmopoditesA71
  Odontosoma Townsend 1916C92
  Arocera longirostrisT27
  Antiopa Meigen 1800BR05
  Purpurella Robineau-Desvoidy 1853BR05
  Volvula Gistl 1848BR05
  Pycnosoma rufifaciesB88
  ‘Eatonia’ Meunier 1905 nec Hall 1857 nec Smith 1875S61
  Megathon zwickiGE05
  AnsorgiusGE05 [AnsorgiidaeBLM02]
  SinotendipesRJ93 [SinotendipedidaeBLM02]
    `--S. tuanwangensis Hong & Wang 1990RJ93
  Speiserella Kishida 1931TYM08
  SericoceraE12
    |--S. algira Macquart 1847E12
    `--S. fuscipennis Macquart 1847E12
  Amictus pulchellus Macquart 1847E12
  Bayeriola salicariaeMB93
  Dicranophora Macquart 1834LT61
  ‘Helea’ Meigen 1800 (nom. rej.) non Latreille 1804MB08
  Camptorhynchus Fischer 1808Z94
  Horaia Tonnoir 1930LB08
  Asiochaoborus [Asiochaoboridae]RJ93
    `--A. tenuous Hong & Wang 1990RJ93
  DictyodipteridaeRJ93
  DiplopolyneuridaeRJ93
  DyspolyneuridaeRJ93
  EomyiidaeRJ93
  EopleciidaeRJ93
    |--Eoplecia primitivaRJ93
    `--Eomycetophila asymmetrica Kovalev 1990RJ93
  EopolyneuridaeRJ93
  EostratiomyiidaeRJ93
  HyperpolyneuridaeRJ93
  Luanpingites [Luanpingitidae]RJ93
    `--L. flavus Zhang 1986RJ93
  MesophantasmatidaeRJ93
  MusidoromimidaeRJ93
  Palaeolimnobia [Palaeolimnobiidae]RJ93
    `--P. laiyangensis Zhang et al. 1986RJ93
  PalaeophoridaeRJ93
  PalaeopleciidaeRJ93
  Stratiomyopsis [Palaeostratiomyiidae, Palaeostriomyiidae]RJ93
    `--S. robusta Hong & Wang 1990RJ93
  ParaxymyiidaeRJ93
  PhragmoligoneuridaeRJ93
  PleciodictyidaeRJ93
  Pleciomimella [Pleciomimidae, Sinemediidae]RJ93
    `--P. perbella Zhang et al. 1986RJ93
  Proneottiophilum [Proneottiophilidae]RJ93
    `--P. extinctumRJ93
  Mesomphrale [Protomphralidae]RJ93
    `--M. asiatica Hong & Wang 1990RJ93
  ProtoligoneuridaeRJ93
  Siberhyphus [Siberhyphidae]RJ93
    `--S. lebedevi Kovalev in Kalugina & Kovalev 1985RJ93
  TanyderophryneidaeRJ93
  TipulodictyidaeRJ93
  TipulopleciidaeRJ93
  Palpina Malloch 1927K18
  Erethmoptera browniR13
  Zonosoma meigeniiR13
  Anistoma cinnamomeaKC01
  Nematocera bicolorG20
  Tethepomyia Grimaldi & Cumming 1999GC99
    `--*T. thauma Grimaldi & Cumming 1999GC99
  ‘Odontoceras’ Macquart 1835 non Serville 1833EH19
  Odonthoceras Rondi 1861EH19
  Goniorhynchus castaneusB89
  Allopogon Schiner 1866Y02
  Molobrus thomaeR26
  Simulia reptansR26
  Odagamia ornataVD-VW14
  Oinopota Kirby 1815ICZN10
    `--*O. cellaris (Linnaeus 1758) [=Musca cellaris]ICZN10

Diptera [Antliata, Archidiptera, Blephariceroidea, Blephariceromorpha, Eudiptera, Muscida, Nematocera, Polyneura, Tipulariae]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

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[B89] Bigot, J.-M.-F. 1889. Goniorhynchus castaneus. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: xlviii.

[BLM02] Blagoderov, V. A., E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski. 2002. Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies (=Muscida Laicharting, 1781). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 227–240. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[C92] Crawford, R. L. 1992. Catalogue of the genera and type species of the harvestman superfamily Phalangioidea (Arachnida). Burke Museum Contributions in Anthropology and Natural History 8: 1–60.

[EH19] Énay, R., & M. K. Howarth. 2019. Part L, revised, volume 3B, chapter 7: Systematic descriptions of the Perisphinctoidea. Treatise Online 120: 1–184.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GC99] Grimaldi, D., & J. Cumming. 1999. Brachyceran Diptera in Cretaceous ambers and Mesozoic diversification of the Eremoneura. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 239: 1–124.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HN13] Huang, D., A. Nel, C. Cai, Q. Lin & M. S. Engel. 2013. Amphibious flies and paedomorphism in the Jurassic period. Nature 495: 94–97.

[ICZN10] ICZN. 2010. Opinion 2245: Drosophila Fallén, 1823 (Insecta, Diptera): Drosophila funebris Fabricius, 1787 is maintained as the type species. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 67 (1): 106–115.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[K81] Kennedy, H. D. 1981. Deuterophlebiidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 199–202. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[KC81] Kevan, D. K. McE., & F. E. A. Cutten. 1981. Nymphomyiidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 203–207. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[K18] Kury, A. B. 2018. Familial nomina in harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones). Bionomina 13: 1–27.

[LB08] Lelej, A. S., & D. J. Brothers. 2008. The genus-group names of Mutillidae (Hymenoptera) and their type species, with a new genus, new name, new synonymies, new combinations and lectotypifications. Zootaxa 1889: 1–79.

[LT61] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1961. Remarks on the systematics of the Sarkodina (Protozoa), renamed homonyms and new and validated genera. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 213–234.

[MB93] Malecki, R. A., B. Blossey, S. D. Hight, D. Schroeder, L. T. Kok & J. R. Coulson. 1993. Biological control of purple loosestrife. BioScience 43 (10): 680–686.

[MB08] Matthews, E. G., & P. Bouchard. 2008. Tenebrionid Beetles of Australia: Descriptions of tribes, keys to genera, catalogue of species. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[M81] McAlpine, J. F. 1981. Key to families—adults. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 89–124. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[O81] Oliver, D. R. 1981. Chironomidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 423–458. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S61] Southcott, R. V. 1961. Studies on the systematics and biology of the Erythraeoidea (Acarina), with a critical revision of the genera and subfamilies. Australian Journal of Zoology 9: 367–610.

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology—a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252–280.

[T27] Thomson, G. M. 1927. The pollination of New Zealand flowers by birds and insects. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 106–125.

[VD-VW14] Vossbrinck, C. R., B. A. Debrunner-Vossbrinck & L. M. Weiss. 2014. Phylogeny of the Microsporidia. In: L. M. Weiss, & J. J. Becnel (eds) Microsporidia: Pathogens of Opportunity pp. 203–220. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

[Y02] Young, D. K. 2002. Artematopodidae Lacordaire 1857. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 146–147. CRC Press.

[Z94] Zimmerman, E. C. 1994. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 2. Brentidae, Eurhynchidae, Apionidae and a chapter on immature stages by Brenda May. CSIRO Australia.

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