Mating pair of Nymphomyia, from here.

Belongs within: Panorpoidea.
Contains: Tipulomorpha, Neoneura.

The Diptera, flies, are a diverse group of insects characterised by the reduction of the hind pair of wings to small sensory knobs called halteres. The mesothorax is correspondingly enlarged relative to the reduced pro- and metathorax. Rapid movements of the halteres during flight are believed to impart gyroscopic stability, allowing for rapid and agile flight. Mouthparts are adapted into a more or less elongate proboscis for sucking fluid.

Molecular analysis supports recognition of the genus Deuterophlebia, the mountain midges, as sister taxon to the remaining flies (Wiegmann et al. 2011). Deuterophlebia species live as larvae in fast-flowing streams in scattered north temperate regions of Eurasia and North America, with a single questional record from Chile (Kennedy 1981). The adult males are characterised by the possession of remarkably long antennae.

Also associated with fast-flowing streams are the Nymphomyiidae, whose species have strap-like wings with reduced venation and a long fringe. These wings are shed after mating, allowing the coupled individuals to crawl underwater so the females can lay. Similar habits have been inferred for the Jurassic Strashilidae, which have been found in the fossil record as both alate and coupled dealate individuals (Huang et al. 2013). Three genera of nymphomyiids are recognised in the modern fauna, with Nymphomyia and Felicitomyia found in eastern Asia and Palaeodipteron in northeastern North America (Kevan & Cutten 1981).

Synapomorphies (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Pro- and metathorax reduced; hind wings reduced to halteres; labial palps fused into labellum; mandibles reduced; male abdominal spiracle 8 lost; sperm pump present.

<==Diptera (see below for synonymy)
    |--Deuterophlebia [Deuterophlebiidae, Deuterophlebioidea, Deuterophlebiomorpha]WT11
    |    |--D. coloradensisWT11
    |    |--D. inyoensisK81
    |    |--D. nielsoniM81
    |    `--D. nipponica Kitakami 1938I92
       |  `--+--PsychotipinaeBLM02
       |     `--NeoneuraWT11
       `--+--Strashilidae [Nakridletia, Vosilidae]HN13
          |    |--Vosila sinensis Vršanský, Ren & Shih 2010 [incl. Parazila saurica Vršanský, Ren & Shih 2010]HN13
          |    `--Strashila Rasnitsyn 1992HN13
          |         |--*S. incredibilisHN13
          |         `--S. daohugouensis Huang, Nel et al. 2013HN13
          `--Nymphomyiidae [Nymphomyioidea, Nymphomyiomorpha]WT11
               |--Palaeodipteron walkeriM81
                    |--*N. albaKC81
                    |--N. dolichopezaWT11
                    |--N. levanidovaeKC81
                    |--N. succinaHN13
                    `--N. walkeriHN13
Diptera incertae sedis:
  ProtendipesO81 [ProtendipedidaeBLM02]
    `--P. huabeiensis Zhang 1986RJ93
  GracilitipulaRJ93 [GracilitipulidaeBLM02]
    `--G. asiatica Hong & Wang 1990RJ93
  Odontosoma Townsend 1916C92
  Arocera longirostrisT27
  Antiopa Meigen 1800BR05
  Purpurella Robineau-Desvoidy 1853BR05
  Volvula Gistl 1848BR05
  Pycnosoma rufifaciesB88
  ‘Eatonia’ Meunier 1905 nec Hall 1857 nec Smith 1875S61
  Megathon zwickiGE05
  AnsorgiusGE05 [AnsorgiidaeBLM02]
  SinotendipesRJ93 [SinotendipedidaeBLM02]
    `--S. tuanwangensis Hong & Wang 1990RJ93
  Speiserella Kishida 1931TYM08
    |--S. algira Macquart 1847E12
    `--S. fuscipennis Macquart 1847E12
  Amictus pulchellus Macquart 1847E12
  Bayeriola salicariaeMB93
  Dicranophora Macquart 1834LT61
  ‘Helea’ Meigen 1800 (nom. rej.) non Latreille 1804MB08
  Camptorhynchus Fischer 1808Z94
  Horaia Tonnoir 1930LB08
  Asiochaoborus [Asiochaoboridae]RJ93
    `--A. tenuous Hong & Wang 1990RJ93
    |--Eoplecia primitivaRJ93
    `--Eomycetophila asymmetrica Kovalev 1990RJ93
  Luanpingites [Luanpingitidae]RJ93
    `--L. flavus Zhang 1986RJ93
  Palaeolimnobia [Palaeolimnobiidae]RJ93
    `--P. laiyangensis Zhang et al. 1986RJ93
  Stratiomyopsis [Palaeostratiomyiidae, Palaeostriomyiidae]RJ93
    `--S. robusta Hong & Wang 1990RJ93
  Pleciomimella [Pleciomimidae, Sinemediidae]RJ93
    `--P. perbella Zhang et al. 1986RJ93
  Proneottiophilum [Proneottiophilidae]RJ93
    `--P. extinctumRJ93
  Mesomphrale [Protomphralidae]RJ93
    `--M. asiatica Hong & Wang 1990RJ93
  Siberhyphus [Siberhyphidae]RJ93
    `--S. lebedevi Kovalev in Kalugina & Kovalev 1985RJ93
  Palpina Malloch 1927K18
  Erethmoptera browniR13
  Zonosoma meigeniiR13
  Anistoma cinnamomeaKC01
  Nematocera bicolorG20
  Tethepomyia Grimaldi & Cumming 1999GC99
    `--*T. thauma Grimaldi & Cumming 1999GC99
  ‘Odontoceras’ Macquart 1835 non Serville 1833EH19
  Odonthoceras Rondi 1861EH19
  Goniorhynchus castaneusB89
  Allopogon Schiner 1866Y02
  Molobrus thomaeR26
  Simulia reptansR26
  Odagamia ornataVD-VW14
  Oinopota Kirby 1815ICZN10
    `--*O. cellaris (Linnaeus 1758) [=Musca cellaris]ICZN10

Diptera [Antliata, Archidiptera, Blephariceroidea, Blephariceromorpha, Eudiptera, Muscida, Nematocera, Polyneura, Tipulariae]

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[LT61] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1961. Remarks on the systematics of the Sarkodina (Protozoa), renamed homonyms and new and validated genera. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 213–234.

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[O81] Oliver, D. R. 1981. Chironomidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 423–458. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

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[S61] Southcott, R. V. 1961. Studies on the systematics and biology of the Erythraeoidea (Acarina), with a critical revision of the genera and subfamilies. Australian Journal of Zoology 9: 367–610.

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[Z94] Zimmerman, E. C. 1994. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 2. Brentidae, Eurhynchidae, Apionidae and a chapter on immature stages by Brenda May. CSIRO Australia.

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