Dipterocarpaceae

 Stand of Dipterocarpus alatus, photographed by Tony Rodd.

Belongs within: Malvales.

The Dipterocarpaceae are a pantropical family of forest trees, many of which are dominant in lowland rain forests. They may be divided between the subfamilies Dipterocarpoideae, found in southern Asia and Australasia, and Monotoideae, found in Africa and South America. Some species in Asia are economically significant hardwood sources. Members of the genus Shorea are among the tallest of all flowering plants, growing over 80 metres in height.

Characters (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Triterpenoid dipterocarpol and sesquiterpene oleoresins present; cork also outer cortical; cambium storied; tyloses present; cortical bundles present; secretory cavities in pith; nodes also 5:5; petiole geniculate; hairs tufted, peltate, etc.; leaves spiral and two-ranked; inflorescence axillary, often branched; androecium initiation centrifugal, anthers more or less versatile, with prolonged connective, median carpel abaxial, ovules apical, stigma slightly lobed or not; calyx thinnish, enlarging somewhat in fruit; seed usually 1, testa vascularized; cotyledons often folded.

<==Dipterocarpaceae
|--MonotoideaeT00
| |--MonotesT00
| |--MarquesiaT00
| `--PseudomonotesT00
`--DipterocarpusPA-W02 [DipterocarpoideaeT00]
|--D. alatusPA-W02
|--D. costatusBAN98
|--D. crinitusA78
|--D. grandiflorusP88
|--D. kerriiZ02
|--D. macrocarpusDD73
|--D. oblongifoliusP88
|--D. trinervisT-W89
`--D. turbinatus [incl. D. laevis]T-W89

Dipterocarpaceae incertae sedis:
ShoreaPL12
|--S. albidaH03
|--S. assamicaZ94
|--S. curtisiiW01
|--S. laevifoliaN77
|--S. lepidotaPL12
|--S. macropteraW01
|--S. parvistipulataK03
|--S. paucifoliaW01
`--S. robustaLJ03
HopeaDG93
|--H. dichotomaM72
|--H. mollissimaDG93
`--H. papuanaC78
AnisopteraWM09
|--A. marginataWM09
`--A. thuriferaC78
Woburnia porosa Stopes 1912CBH93
Parashorea malaanonanCBH93, K03
DipterocarpoxylonCBH93
Dryobalanops aromaticaT-W89, P88
PachynocarpusT=W89
VaticaT-W89
DoonaT-W89
Vateria indicaT-W89
MonoporandraT-W89

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A78] Ananthakrishnan, T. N. 1978. Thrips galls and gall thrips. Zoological Survey of India, Technical Monograph 1: 1–69, 26 pls.

[BAN98] Baum, D. A., W. S. Anderson & R. Nyffeler. 1998. A durian by any other name: taxonomy and nomenclature of the core Malvales. Harvard Papers in Botany 3 (2): 315–330.

[C78] Clunie, N. M. U. 1978. The vegetation. In: Womersley, J. S. (ed.) Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 1 pp. 1–11. Melbourne University Press: Carlton South (Australia).

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[DD73] Deb, D. B., & R. M. Dutta. 1973. Contribution to the flora of Tirap Frontier Division. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (3): 547–573.

[DG93] Dung, V. V., P. M. Giao, N. N. Chinh, D. Tuoc, P. Arctander & J. MacKinnon. 1993. A new species of living bovid from Vietnam. Nature 363: 443–445.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81–98.

[LJ03] Lim, Y. W., & H. S. Jung. 2003. Irpex hydnoides, sp. nov. is new to science, based on morphological, cultural and molecular characters. Mycologia 95 (4): 694–699.

[M72] Mitra, S. N. 1972. Observations on the vegetation of the Upper Damodar catchment area. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (1): 17–25.

[N77] Nooteboom, H. P. 1977. Symplocaceae. Flora Malesiana, Series I—Spermatophyta, Flowering Plants 8 (2): 205–274.

[PA-W02] Pang, K.-L., M. A. Abdel-Wahab, S. Sivichai, H. M. El-Sharouney & E. B. G. Jones. 2002. Jahnulales (Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota): a new order of lignicolous freshwater ascomycetes. Mycological Research 106 (9): 1031–1042.

[PL12] Peñalver, E., C. C. Labandeira, E. Barrón, X. Delclòs, P. Nel, A. Nel, P. Tafforeau & C. Soriano. 2012. Thrips pollination of Mesozoic gymnosperms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (22): 8623–8628.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[T-W89] Tenison-Woods, J. E. 1889. On the vegetation of Malaysia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (1): 9–106, pls 1–9.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853–3858.

[W01] Watling, R. 2001. The relationships and possible distributional patterns of boletes in south-east Asia. Mycological Research 105 (12): 1440–1448.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Pattern of insect burial and conservation. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 17–63. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[Z94] Zimmerman, E. C. 1994. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 2. Brentidae, Eurhynchidae, Apionidae and a chapter on immature stages by Brenda May. CSIRO Australia.

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