Schematic illustration of Rhynchopus euleeides, with cut-away to illustrate flagellar and feeding apparatuses, from Roy et al. (2007). Scale bar = 2 µm.

Belongs within: Eukaryota.
Contains: Tetramitia, Euglenida, Kinetoplastea.

The Discoba are a clade of unicellular eukaryotes united by molecular phylogenetic analyses. The clade was defined by Adl et al. (2019) as that arising from the most recent common ancestor of Jakoba libera, Andalucia godoyi, Euglena gracilis, Naegleria gruberi and Tsukubamonas globosa.

|--Tsukubamonas Yabuki et al. 2011C-S18, AS12 [Tsukubamonadea, Tsukubamonadida]
| `--T. globosaAS12
|--Jakobida [Jakobea]AB19
| |--AndalucinaAB19
| | |--Andalucia Lara et al. 2006C-SCL15, AS12 [Andaluciidae]
| | | |--A. godoyi Lara et al. 2006HH09
| | | `--A. incarcerataC-SCL15
| | `--StygiellidaeAB19
| | |--Stygiella incarcerataLE18
| | `--VelundellaAB19
| `--HistioninaAB19
| | i. s.: MoramonasAB19
| |--‘Jakoba’ bahamensisC-SCL15
| `--+--Seculamonas ecuadoriensisC-SCL15
| `--+--Jakoba Patterson 1990C-SCL15, AS12 [Jakobidae]
| | |--J. incarcerata Bernard, Simpson & Patterson 2000SP01
| | `--J. libera (Ruinen 1938)HH09
| `--HistionidaeC-S03
| |--StenocodonAS12
| |--StomatochoneAS12
| |--Histiona Voigt 1902C-SCL15, C-S93
| | `--H. aroidesC-SCL15
| `--Reclinomonas Flavin & Nerad 1993C-S93
| |--R. americanaC-SCL15
| `--R. campanula [=Histiona campanula]C-S03
`--Discicristata [Discomitochondria]AB19
|--Heterolobosea [Percolozoa]C-S18
| |--TetramitiaAS12
| `--Pharyngomonas [Pharyngomonada]AS12
| `--P. kirbyiLE18
`--Euglenozoa [Plicostoma]C-S18
| i. s.: Heteromita Dujardin 1841AS12
| |--KinetoplasteaC-SCL15
| `--Symbiontida [Postgaardea, Postgaardida]AS12
| |--Postgaardi mariagerensisC-S10, S03
| |--Calkinsia aureusAS12
| `--BihospitesAS12
`--Diplonemea [Diplonemia, Diplonemida]AS12
|--Eupelagonema [Eupelagonemidae]AB19
|--HemistasiaAB19 [incl. Entomosigma Schiller 1925P99, FT93; HemistasiidaeAB19]
| |--‘Entomosigma’ peridinioidesGE87
| `--‘Entomosigma’ simplicius Conrad 1939S73
|--Diplonema Kjellm. 1855C-SCL15, KC01
| |--D. ambulator Larsen & Patterson 1990AS12
| `--D. papillatumC-S04
`--Rhynchopus Skuja 1948AB19, RF07
|--*R. amitusRF07
|--R. coscinodiscivorusRF07
`--R. euleeides Roy, Faktorová et al. 2007RF07

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AB19] Adl, S. M., D. Bass, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov, S. Agatha, C. Berney, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, P. Cárdenas, I. Čepička, L. Chistyakova, J. del Campo, M. Dunthorn, B. Edvardsen, Y. Eglit, L. Guillou, V. Hampl, A. A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, T. Y. James, A. Karnkowska, S. Karpov, E. Kim, M. Kolisko, A. Kudryavtsev, D. J. G. Lahr, E. Lara, L. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, D. G. Mann, R. Massana, E. A. D. Mitchell, C. Morrow, J. S. Park, J. W. Pawlowski, M. J. Powell, D. J. Richter, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, S. Shimano, F. W. Spiegel, G. Torruella, N. Youssef, V. Zlatogursky & Q. Zhang. 2019. Revisions to the classification, nomenclature, and diversity of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 66: 4–119.

[AS12] Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, D. Bass, S. S. Bowser, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, M. Dunthorn, V. Hampl, A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, E. Lara, E. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, H. McManus, E. A. D. Mitchell, S. E. Mozley-Stanridge, L. W. Parfrey, J. Pawlowski, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov & F. W. Spiegel. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–493.

[C-S93] Cavalier-Smith, T. 1993. The protozoan phylum Opalozoa. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 40 (5): 609–615.

[C-S03] Cavalier-Smith, T. 2003. The excavate protozoan phyla Metamonada Grassé emend. (Anaeromonadea, Parabasalia, Carpediemonas, Eopharyngia) and Loukozoa emend. (Jakobea, Malawimonas): their evolutionary affinities and new higher taxa. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 1741–1758.

[C-S04] Cavalier-Smith, T. 2004. Only six kingdoms of life. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 271: 1251–1262.

[C-S10] Cavalier-Smith, T. 2010. Kingdoms Protozoa and Chromista and the eozoan root of the eukaryotic tree. Biology Letters 6 (3): 342–345.

[C-S18] Cavalier-Smith, T. 2018. Kingdom Chromista and its eight phyla: a new synthesis emphasising periplastid protein targeting, cytoskeletal and periplastid evolution, and ancient divergences. Protoplasma 255: 297–357.

[C-SCL15] Cavalier-Smith, T., E. E. Chao & R. Lewis. 2015. Multiple origins of Heliozoa from flagellate ancestors: new cryptist subphylum Corbihelia, superclass Corbistoma, and monophyly of Haptista, Cryptista, Hacrobia and Chromista. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 93: 331–362.

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i–viii, 1–351.

[GE87] Gaines, G., & M. Elbrächter. 1987. Heterotrophic nutrition. In: Taylor, F. J. R. (ed.) The Biology of Dinoflagellates pp. 224–268. Blackwell Scientific.

[HH09] Hampl, V., L. Hug, J. W. Leigh, J. B. Dacks, B. F. Lang, A. G. B. Simpson & A. J. Roger. 2009. Phylogenomic analyses support the monophyly of Excavata and resolve relationships among eukaryotic “supergroups”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3859–3864.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[LE18] Lax, G., Y. Eglit, L. Eme, E. M. Bertrand, A. J. Roger & A. G. B. Simpson. 2018. Hemimastigophora is a novel supra-kingdom-level lineage of eukaryotes. Nature 564: 410–414.

[P99] Patterson, D. J. 1999. The diversity of eukaryotes. American Naturalist 154 (Suppl.): S96–S124.

[RF07] Roy, J., D. Faktorová, O. Benada, J. Lukeš & G. Burger. 2007. Decription of Rhynchopus euleeides n. sp. (Diplonemea), a free-living marine euglenozoan. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 54 (2): 137–145.

[S03] Simpson, A. G. B. 2003. Cytoskeletal organization, phylogenetic affinities and systematics in the contentious taxon Excavata (Eukaryota). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 1759–1777.

[SP01] Simpson, A. G. B., & D. J. Patterson. 2001. On core jakobids and excavate taxa: the ultrastructure of Jakoba incarcerata. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 48 (4): 480–492.

[S73] Sournia, A. 1973. Catalogue des espèces et taxons infraspécifiques de Dinoflagellés marins actuels publiés depuis la révision de J. Schiller. I. Dinoflagellés libres. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia 48: 1–92.

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