Female Holothrips, from CSIRO.

Belongs within: Phlaeothripidae.

The Docessissophothripini are a group of fungus-feeding thrips characterised by the possession of relatively broad maxillary guides outside the maxillary stylets. The stylets themselves may be remarkably long, and form multiple loops when retracted in the genera Maxillata and Tropothrips (Mound & Palmer 1983). The majority of species in this group are placed in the cosmopolitan genus Holothrips, while the remaining genera are relatively small and more restricted in distribution. Mound and Palmer (1983) suggested that the smaller genera may represent recent evolutionary segregates from Holothrips.

Characters (from Mound & Palmer 1983): Antennae with segments VII-VIII more or less fused, III with three sense cones (two in Asemothrips, Pongola, Symphyothrips, four in Oidanothrips), IV with four sense cones (two in Symphyothrips and sometimes Pongola). Maxillary stylets moderately broad, retracted to compound eyes, usually parallel in middle of head but sometimes looped; maxillary guides stout. Pronotum with epimeral sutures complete; praepectus absent; metathoracic sternopleural sutures well-developed, anapleural sutures complete. Wings usually present; forewings with duplicated cilia (except Asemothrips). Pelta usually elongate triangular (relatively broad in Pongola); tergites with two pairs of sigmoid wing-retaining setae, although these are sometimes reduced; tube usually with straight sides but in various species the tube is broadened, ridged or sculptured; tergite IX setae B2 of male short and stout (except Pongola and Symphyothrips); median sternites of male (usually III-V) with one or a pair of transverse areas of reticulate sculpture which is irridescent under phase contrast microscopy.

    |--Pongola Zur Strassen 1959MP83
    |    `--*P. rufianalis Zur Strassen 1959MP83
    |--Maxillata Faure 1949MP83
    |    |--*M. priesneri Faure 1949MM96
    |    `--M. tremblayi Mound & Marullo 1996MM96
    |--Oidanothrips Moulton 1944MP83
    |    |--*O. magnus Moulton 1944MP83
    |    |--O. enormis (Ananthakrishnan 1969) [=Polyphemothrips enormis]MP83
    |    |--O. frontalis (Bagnall 1914) [=Docessissophothrips frontalis; incl. Machatothrips femoralis Ishida 1932]MP83
    |    `--O. megacephalus (Ananthakrishnan 1969) [=Polyphemothrips megacephalus]MP83
    |--Tropothrips Hood 1949MM96
    |    |--*T. borgmeieri Hood 1949MM96
    |    |--T. dampfi (Priesner 1933) [=Docessissophothrips dampfi]MM96
    |    |--T. nigripes Stannard 1954MM96
    |    |--T. richardsi Stannard 1954MM96
    |    `--T. tuxtlae Johansen 1979MM96
    |--Asemothrips Hood 1919 [incl. Coenothrips Bagnall 1924, Empresmothrips Karny 1920, Eucoenothrips Bagnall 1926]MP83
    |    |--*A. picturatus Hood 1919 [incl. Empresmothrips longfellowi Girault 1926]MP83
    |    |--A. combustipes (Karny 1920) [=*Empresmothrips combustipes]MP83
    |    |--A. fallax (Bagnall 1924)MP83 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--A. finlayi (Girault 1927) [=Cryptothrips finlayi]MP83
    |    |--A. folii (Girault 1928) [=Empresmothrips folii]MP83
    |    `--A. pallipes (Karny 1925) [=Empresmothrips pallipes]MP83
    |--Symphyothrips Hood & Williams 1915MP83 [incl. Mesopotamothrips Liebermann & Gemignani 1931MM96]
    |    |--*S. punctatus Hood & Williams 1915MM96
    |    |--S. aberrans Ananthakrishnan 1971MP83
    |    |--S. alifanensis Bianchi 1949MP83
    |    |--S. caliginosus Hood 1952MM96
    |    |--S. concordiensis (Liebermann & Gemignani 1931) [=*Mesopotamothrips concordiensis]MM96
    |    |--S. longicauda Priesner 1924MP83
    |    |--S. longicornis Priesner 1921MM96
    |    `--S. reticulatus Watson 1925MM96
    |--Docessissophothrips Bagnall 1908 [incl. Polyphemothrips Schmutz 1909]MM96
    |    |--*D. ampliceps Bagnall 1908MM96
    |    |--D. bonfilsi Bournier 1992MM96
    |    |--D. brasiliensis (Schmutz 1909) [=*Polyphemothrips brasiliensis]MM96
    |    |--‘Polyphemothrips’ brunneicorpus Girault 1927G27
    |    |--D. corticis (Hood 1914) [=Polyphemothrips corticis]MM96
    |    |--D. cuneatus (Hood 1939) [=Polyphemothrips cuneatus]MM96
    |    |--D. dotatus (Hood 1955) [=Polyphemothrips dotatus]MM96
    |    |--D. major Bagnall 1912MM96
    |    |--D. tenuiceps (Hood 1937) [=Polyphemothrips tenuiceps]MM96
    |    |--D. tibialis (Hood & Williams 1915) [=Polyphemothrips tibialis]MM96
    |    |--D. travassosi (Hood 1949) [=Polyphemothrips travassosi]MM96
    |    |--D. villicornis (Hood 1949) [=Polyphemothrips villicornis]MM96
    |    |--D. woytkowskyi (Hood 1937) [=Polyphemothrips woytkowskyi]MM96
    |    `--D. yupanqui (Hood 1937) [=Polyphemothrips yupanqui]MM96
    `--Holothrips Karny 1911MM96 (see below for synonymy)
         |--*H. ingens Karny 1911 [incl. Adelothrips fenestralis Hood 1949]MM96
         |--H. aberrans (Hood 1955) [=Adelothrips aberrans]MM96
         |--H. acutus (Stannard 1956) [=Adelothrips acutus]MM96
         |--H. adelos (Mound 1968) (see below for synonymy)MM96
         |--H. ambitus (Hinds 1902) [=Trichothrips ambitus]MM96
         |--H. amplus Hood 1952MM96
         |--H. anahuacensis Johansen & Mojica 1993MM96
         |--*Cratothrips’ angulatus Priesner 1927 [=Abiastothrips angulatus]MP83
         |--H. aspericaudus Hood 1952MM96
         |--H. australis (Mound 1974) [=Adelothrips australis]MP83
         |--H. bellulus (Hood 1955) [=Adelothrips bellulus]MM96
         |--H. bicolor (Stannard 1956) [=Adelothrips bicolor]MM96
         |--H. bipartitus (Hood 1954) [=Adelothrips bipartitus]MM96
         |--H. bratleyi (Watson 1935) [=Trichothrips bratleyi; incl. Hoplothrips flavus Moulton & Andre 1936]MM96
         |--H. buccalis (Hood 1955) [=Adelothrips buccalis]MM96
         |--H. bursarius (Hood 1957) [=Polyphemothrips bursarius]MM96
         |--H. caribbeicus (Stannard 1956) [=Adelothrips caribbeicus]MM96
         |--H. caudatus (Bagnall 1915) [=Allothrips caudatus]MP83
         |--H. citricornis (Bagnall 1913) [=Cryptothrips citricornis]MP83
         |--H. conicurus (Hood 1942) [=Adelothrips conicurus]MM96
         |--H. connaticornis (Hood 1925) [=Cryptothrips connaticornis]MM96
         |--H. cornutus (Hood 1955) [=Adelothrips cornutus]MM96
         |--H. cracens (Ananthakrishnan 1968) [=Polyphemothrips cracens]MP83
         |--H. durangoensis Johansen & Mojica 1993MM96
         |--H. eucharis (Hood 1955) [=Adelothrips eucharis]MM96
         |--H. formosus (Hood 1952) [=Adelothrips formosus]MM96
         |--H. fumidus (Ananthakrishnan 1972) [=Polyphemothrips fumidus]MP83
         |--H. graminicolus (Hood 1952) [=Adelothrips graminicolus]MM96
         |--H. grandis (Stannard 1956) [=Adelothrips grandis]MM96
         |--H. hammockensis (Stannard 1956) [=Adelothrips hammockensis]MM96
         |--H. indicus (Ananthakrishnan 1956) (see below for synonymy)MP83
         |--H. insignis (Hood 1938) [=Lathrobiothrips insignis]MM96
         |--H. junctus (Hood 1912) [=Cryptothrips junctus; incl. Hoplothrips quercus Moulton & Andre 1936]MM96
         |--H. lanei (Hood 1949) [=Adelothrips lanei]MM96
         |--H. lucyae (Medina Gaud 1961) [=Polyphemothrips lucyae]MM96
         |--H. luteus (Faure 1954) [=Polyphemothrips luteus]MP83
         |--H. macrurus (Hood 1941) [=Adelothrips macrurus]MM96
         |--H. magnificus (Johansen 1982) [=Adelothrips magnificus]MM96
         |--H. minor (Hood 1937) [=Polyphemothrips minor]MM96
         |--H. mirandus (Ananthakrishnan 1969) [=Polyphemothrips mirandus]MP83
         |--H. nepalensis (Pelikan 1970) [=Adelothrips nepalensis]MP83
         |--H. nigrita (Zur Strassen 1972) [=*Holmiella nigrita]MP83
         |--H. obscurifemorae (Gallego & Merlo 1983) [=Adelothrips obscurifemorae]MM96
         |--H. oceanicusMDT13
         |--H. palmarum (Hood 1952) [=Adelothrips palmarum]MM96
         |--H. palmerae (Johansen 1981) [=Adelothrips palmerae]MM96
         |--H. pericles (Hood 1938) [=Adelothrips pericles]MM96
         |--H. peruvianus (Hood 1937)MM96 [=*Cordylothrips peruvianusMP83]
         |--H. phaeura (Hood 1941) [=Adelothrips phaeura]MM96
         |--H. potosiensis (Moulton 1947) [=Symphyothrips potosiensis]MM96
         |--H. procerus Hood 1952MM96
         |--H. quadratocapitis Johansen 1981MM96
         |--H. ramuli (Hood 1934)MM96 [=*Lathrobiothrips ramuliMP83]
         |--H. robustus (Hood 1954) [=Adelothrips robustus]MM96
         |--H. ruidus (Ananthakrishnan 1969) [=Polyphemothrips ruidus]MP83
         |--H. schaubergeri (Priesner 1920)MM96 (see below for synonymy)
         |--H. sculptilis (Hood 1942) [=Adelothrips sculptilis]MM96
         |--H. semiflavus (Moulton 1947) [=*Agnostothrips semiflavus]MP83
         |--H. skwarrae (Priesner 1933) [=Symphyothrips skwarrae]MM96
         |--‘Abiastothrips’ soror Zur Strassen 1974MP83
         |--H. speciosissimus (Karny 1920) [=Nesothrips speciosissimus]MP83
         |--H. splendidus (Johansen 1979) [=Adelothrips splendidus]MM96
         |--H. sporophagus (Stannard 1956) [=Adelothrips sporophagus]MM96
         |--H. stannardi (Ananthakrishnan 1972) [=Polyphemothrips stannardi]MP83
         |--H. subtilis (Ananthakrishnan 1972) [=Polyphemothrips subtilis]MP83
         |--H. tumidus De Santis 1963MM96
         |--H. typicus (Bagnall 1936) [=*Panceratothrips typicus]MP83
         |--H. ‘typicus’ (Ananthakrishnan 1967) (see below for synonymy)MP83
         |--H. umbricola (Hood 1952) [=Adelothrips umbricola]MM96
         |--H. umbrosus Johansen 1986MM96
         |--H. woytkowski (Hood 1942) [=Lathrobiothrips woytkowski]MM96
         |--H. xanthopus (Hood 1938) [=*Adelothrips xanthopus]MM96
         `--H. zimmermanni (Moulton 1944) [=*Ischnothrips zimmermanni]MP83
Nomen nudum: Docessissophothrips annuus Moulton in Priesner 1933MP83

Asemothrips fallax (Bagnall 1924)MP83 [=*Coenothrips fallaxMP83, Empresmothrips fallaxM70, *Eucoenothrips fallaxMP83; incl. Cryptothrips froudei Girault 1927MP83, C. rhopaloides Karny 1924MP83, C. silvae Girault 1927MP83]

Holothrips Karny 1911MM96 [incl. Abiastothrips Priesner 1925MM96, Adelothrips Hood 1938MM96, Agnostothrips Moulton 1947MP83, Cordylothrips Hood 1937MP83, Cratothrips Priesner 1927MP83, Erythrinothrips Ananthakrishnan 1956MP83, Holmiella Zur Strassen 1972MP83, Ischnothrips Moulton 1944MP83, Lathrobiothrips Hood 1933MP83, Panceratothrips Bagnall 1936MP83, Stinothrips Ananthakrishnan 1969MP83]

Holothrips adelos (Mound 1968) [=Polyphemothrips adelos, Adelothrips caudatus Hood 1955 non Allothrips caudatus Bagnall 1915]MM96

Holothrips indicus (Ananthakrishnan 1956) [=Agnostothrips (*Erythrinothrips) indicus; incl. Symphyothrips associatus Ananthakrishnan 1968]MP83

Holothrips schaubergeri (Priesner 1920)MM96 [=Trichothrips schaubergeriMM96, T. (*Abiastothrips) schaubergeriMP83; incl. Bolothrips lativerticis Post 1961MM96, Cratothrips priesneri Bagnall 1933MP83]

Holothrips ‘typicus’ (Ananthakrishnan 1967) non Panceratothrips typicus Bagnall 1936 [=Ischnothrips typicus, *Stinothrips typicus]MP83

*Type species of generic name indicated


[G27] Girault, A. A. 1927. Some new wild animals. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 208–210).

[M70] Mound, L. A. 1970. Convoluted maxillary stylets and the systematics of some phlaeothripine Thysanoptera from Casuarina trees in Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology 18: 439–463.

[MDT13] Mound, L. A., L.-H. Dang & D. J. Tree. 2013. Genera of fungivorous Phlaeothripinae (Thysanoptera) from dead branches and leaf-litter in Australia. Zootaxa 3681 (3): 201–224.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1–487.

[MP83] Mound, L. A., & J. M. Palmer. 1983. The generic and tribal classification of spore-feeding Thysanoptera (Phlaeothripidae: Idolothripinae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Entomology series 46 (1): 1–174.

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