Dolichoderinae

 Dolly ant Dolichoderus scabridus, copyright Ajay Narendra.

Belongs within: Formicidae.
Contains: Iridomyrmex, Bothriomyrmex, Dolichoderus (Hypoclinea), Technomyrmex, Tapinoma, Leptomyrmex.

The Dolichoderinae are a group of ants characterised by the presence of a transverse slit at the apex of the abdomen from which chemicals are secreted (Heterick 2009). A number of dolichoderines are notably aggressive and some such as the Argentine ant Linepithema humile and white-footed ant Technomyrmex albipes are notorious pests. The majority of dolichoderines possess a relatively soft, unornamented cuticle but members of the basal genus Dolichoderus are more strongly sclerotised and often markedly sculpted on the head and mesosoma. Dolichoderus is also characterised by a posteriorly concave propodeum, a feature shared with the smaller and less sclerotised species of the Indp-Australian genus Ochetellus. Other genera include Liometopum, found in drier forests of the Holarctic region where most species form large nests arboreally. The Neotropical genus Azteca is entirely arboreal with species nesting in hollows in wood or constructing carton nests.

Characters (from Heterick 2009): Mandibles triangular with teeth along entire inner margin; abdomen without impression between third and fourth abdominal segments, often soft, flexible and easily collapsed; transverse slit present at junction of hypopygium and pygidium.

<==Dolichoderinae [Anonychomyrmini, Axinidrini, Dolichoderidae, Leptomyrmicini, Liometopini, Pityomyrmecini, Zherichiniini]
    |--Dolichoderus Lunder 1831BS06, Z01 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |  i. s.: *D. attelaboides (Fabricius 1775) [=Formica attelaboides]TB85
    |    |         D. affinis Emery 1889 [incl. D. affinis var. glabripes, D. affinis var. nigricans]B03
    |    |         D. bidensS07
    |    |         D. burmanicus Bingham 1903B03
    |    |         ‘Monacis’ caribbaeaP92
    |    |         D. (Karajewella) cuspidatusSM13 [=Hypoclinea cuspidatusGE05]
    |    |         D. diboliaP92
    |    |         D. erectilobusSM13
    |    |         D. feae Emery 1889B03
    |    |         D. flatidorsus Zhou & Zheng 1998Z01
    |    |         D. fuscus Emery 1889 [=D. feae fuscus]B03
    |    |         D. gibbiferE89b
    |    |         D. moggridgei Forel 1886B03
    |    |         D. pilosus Zhou & Zheng 1998Z01
    |    |         ‘Monacis’ prolaminataP92
    |    |         D. quadripunctatusE89a
    |    |         D. rugocapitus Zhou 2001Z01
    |    |         D. sibiricus Emery 1889 (see below for synonymy)Z01
    |    |         D. sulcaticeps (Mayr 1870) [=Hypoclinea sulcaticeps]B03
    |    |         D. taprobanae (Smith 1858)B03 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |         D. tertiarusP92
    |    |         D. thoracicus (Smith 1860)Z01 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |         D. tuberiferE89b
    |    |--D. (Hypoclinea)SM13
    |    `--+--D. (Acanthoclinea Wheeler 1935)SM13, TB85
    |       |    |--D. (*A.) doriae Emery 1887TB85
    |       |    |--D. (A.) clarki Wheeler 1935SM13, TB85 (see below for synonymy)
    |       |    |--D. (A.) dentatus Forel 1902 [=D. doriae dentata]SM13
    |       |    |--D. (A.) etus Shattuck & Marsden 2013SM13
    |       |    |--D. (A.) extensispinus Forel 1915SM13, TB85 [=D. doriae extensispinaTB85]
    |       |    `--D. (A.) gordoni Shattuck & Marsden 2013SM13
    |       `--+--Monoceratoclinea Wheeler 1935SM13, Z01
    |          |--D. indrapurensisSM13
    |          `--D. (Diceratoclinea Wheeler 1935)SM13, TB85
    |               |--D. (*D.) scabridus Roger 1862TB85 (see below for synonymy)
    |               |--D. (D.) angusticornis Clark 1930SM13, TB85 [=D. (Hypoclinea) angusticornisTB85]
    |               |--D. (D.) inferus Shattuck & Marsden 2013SM13
    |               |--D. (D.) niger Crawley 1922SM13, TB85 [=D. (Hypoclinea) ypsilon nigraTB85]
    |               |--D. (D.) rufotibialis Clark 1930SM13, TB85 [=D. (Hypoclinea) ypsilon rufotibialisTB85]
    |               `--D. (D.) ypsilon Forel 1902SM13, TB85
    `--+--+--TechnomyrmexBS06
       |  `--+--TapinomaBS06
       |     `--Liometopum Mayr 1861BS06, B03 [incl. Ctenobethylus Brues 1939Z01]
       |          |--*L. microcephalum (Panzer 1798) [=Formica microcephala]Z01
       |          |--L. apiculatumBS06
       |          |--L. lindgreeni Forel 1902B03
       |          |--L. occidentaleBS06
       |          |    |--L. o. occidentaleBM76
       |          |    `--L. o. luctuosumBM76
       |          `--L. sinense Wheeler 1921Z01
       `--+--LeptomyrmexBS06
          `--+--+--Forelius pruinosusBS06 [=Iridomyrmex pruinosusWW90]
             |  |    |--F. p. pruinosusBM76
             |  |    `--‘Iridomyrmex’ p. analisBM76
             |  `--DorymyrmexBS06
             |       |--D. bicolorBS06 [=Conomyrma bicolorWW90, D. pyramicus bicolorWW90]
             |       `--D. pyramicusBM76
             `--+--AztecaBS06
                |    |--A. alphaP92
                |    |--A. constructorS10
                |    |--A. eumecesP92
                |    |--A. ovaticepsBS06
                |    |--A. trigonaTRZ10
                |    `--A. xanthochroaWI-B09
                `--+--Linepithema humile (Mayr 1868)BS06, W08
                   `--+--Papyrius nitidusBS06
                      `--+--AnonychomyrmaBS06
                         |    |--A. gilbertiBS06
                         |    |--A. itineransH09
                         |    |    |--A. i. itineransH09
                         |    |    `--A. i. perthensisH09
                         |    `--A. nitidicepsH09
                         `--+--Philidris Shattuck 1992BS06, Z01
                            |    |--*P. cordata (Smith 1859)Z01 [=Formica cordataZ01, Iridomyrmex cordatusTB85]
                            |    |    |--P. c. cordataTB85
                            |    |    `--‘Iridomyrmex cordatus’ stewartii Forel 1893TB85
                            |    `--P. notiala Zhou & Zheng 1998Z01
                            `--Turneria Forel 1895BS06, TB85
                                 |--*T. bidentata Forel 1895TB85
                                 |--T. dahliiZ01
                                 |--T. frenchi Forel 1911TB85
                                 `--T. pacificaZ01
Dolichoderinae incertae sedis:
  IridomyrmexH09
  EotapinomaGE05
    |--E. macalpiniGE05
    `--E. zherichiniusGE05
  Ochetellus Shattuck 1992FT08
    |--*O. glaber (Mayr 1862) [=Hypoclinea glabra, Iridomyrmex glaber; incl. I. itoi Forel 1900]Z01
    |    |--O. g. glaberTB85
    |    `--‘Iridomyrmex’ g. clarithorax Forel 1902TB85
    |    `--‘Iridomyrmex’ g. sommeri For. 1902 [incl. I. glaber sommeri var. janthina Emery 1914]E14
    |--O. flavipesH09
    `--O. punctatissimusH09
  Froggattella Forel 1902TB85
    |--*F. kirbii (Lowne 1865) [=Acantholepis kirbii, Dolichoderus kirbyi Dalla Torre 1893]TB85
    |    |--F. k. kirbiiTB85
    |    |--F. k. bispinosa Forel 1902TB85
    |    |--F. k. ianthina Wheeler 1936TB85
    |    |--F. k. laticeps Wheeler 1936TB85
    |    |--F. k. lutescens Wheeler 1936TB85
    |    `--F. k. nigripes Wheeler 1936TB85
    `--F. latispina Wheeler 1936TB85
  ArnoldiusH09
    |--A. flavusH09
    `--A. scissorH09
  Nebothriomyrmex majeriH09
  Doleromyrma Forel 1907H09, TB85
    |--*D. darwiniana (Forel 1907) [=Tapinoma (*Doleromyrma) darwinianum, Iridomyrmex darwinianus]TB85
    |    |--D. d. darwinianaH09
    |    |--D. d. fida (Forel 1907)H09, TB85 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--‘Iridomyrmex darwinianus’ leae Forel 1913TB85
    `--D. rottnestensis (Wheeler 1934)H09, TB85 [=Tapinoma (Micromyrma) rottnestenseTB85, T. minutum rottnestenseH09]
  ConomyrmaWW90
    |--C. flavopectus [=Dorymyrmex pyramicus flavopectus]WW90
    `--C. insanaWW90
  BothriomyrmexTB85
  PityomyrmexP92
  Leptomyrmula maravignaeP92

Doleromyrma darwiniana fida (Forel 1907)H09, TB85 [=Tapinoma (Doleromyrma) darwinianum fidaTB85, Iridomyrmex darwinianus fidaTB85]

Dolichoderus Lund 1831BS06, Z01 [incl. Diabolus Karavajew 1926Z01, Irenae Donisthorpe 1938Z01, Karavajewella Donisthorpe 1944Z01, Monacis Roger 1862Z01]

Dolichoderus sibiricus Emery 1889 [=D. quadripunctatus sibiricus; incl. D. (Hypoclinea) abietis Kono & Sugihara 1939, D. (H.) sinensis var. atriceps Wheeler 1928, D. quadripunctatus japonicus Yoshioka 1939, D. (H.) sinensis Wheeler 1921, D. (H.) quadripunctatus yoshiokae Wheeler 1933]Z01

Dolichoderus taprobanae (Smith 1858)B03 [=Formica taprobanaeB03, Hypoclinea taprobanaeH02; incl. H. gracilipes Mayr 1878B03, Dolichoderus taprobanae var. gracilipesB03, H. gracilis Motschoulsky 1863Z01, Formica ingruens Walker 1859Z01, Dolichoderus semirufus André 1887B03]

Dolichoderus thoracicus (Smith 1860)Z01 [=Tapinoma thoracicaE89b; incl. Hypoclinea bituberculatus Mayr 1862Z01, Dolichoderus bituberculatusB03, Tapinoma gibbaE89b]

Dolichoderus (Acanthoclinea) clarki Wheeler 1935SM13, TB85 [=D. (Hypoclinea) tristis Clark 1930 non D. (Monacis) tristis Mann 1916TB85]

Dolichoderus (*Diceratoclinea) scabridus Roger 1862TB85 [=D. (Hypoclinea) scabridusTB85; incl. Polyrhachis foveolatus Lowne 1865TB85, D. (H.) scabridus ruficornis Santschi 1916SM13, TB85]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera vol. 2. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[BS06] Brady, S. G., T. R. Schultz, B. L. Fisher & P. S. Ward. 2006. Evaluating alternative hypotheses for the early evolution and diversification of ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (48): 18172–18177.

[E89a] Emery, C. 1889a. Intorno ad alcune formiche della fauna palearctica. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 439–443.

[E89b] Emery, C. 1889b. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XX.—Formiche di Birmania e del Tenasserim raccolte da Leonardo Fea (1885–87). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 485–520.

[E14] Emery, C. 1914. Les fourmis de la Nouvelle-Calédonie & des îles Loyalty. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 4 pp. 393–436, pl. 12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[FT08] Framenau, V. W., & M. L. Thomas. 2008. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean): identification and distribution. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 45–85.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H09] Heterick, B. E. 2009. A guide to the ants of south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 76: 1–206.

[H02] Hong Y. 2002. Amber Insect of China. Beijing Scientific and Technological Publishing House.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[SM13] Shattuck, S. O., & S. Marsden. 2013. Australian species of the ant genus Dolichoderus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 3716 (2): 101–143.

[S07] Ślipiński, A. 2007. Australian Ladybird Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): Their biology and classification. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[S10] Swann, J. E. 2010. Milichiidae (milichiid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1125–1136. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[TB85] Taylor, R. W., & D. R. Brown. 1985. Formicoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 1–149. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[TRZ10] Thompson, E. C., G. E. Rotheray & M. A. Zumbado. 2010. Syrphidae (flower flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 763–792. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[WI-B09] Wagner, R., & S. Ibáñez-Bernal. 2009. Psychodidae (sand flies, and moth flies or owl flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 319–335. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[W08] Wetterer, J. K. 2008. Worldwide spread of the longhorn crazy ant, Paratrechina longicornis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecological News 11: 137–149.

[WW90] Wheeler, G. C., & J. Wheeler. 1990. Insecta: Hymenoptera Formicidae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1277–1294. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[Z01] Zhou, S. 2001. Ants of Guangxi. Guangxi Normal University Press: Guilin (China).

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