Congeria subglobosa, copyright Naturhistorisches Museum Wien.

Belongs within: Neoheterodontei.

The Dreissenidae are a group of mussel-like bivalves found living in estuarine habitats.

Characters (from Pilsbry & Bequaert 1927): Shell mytiliform with anterior, nearly or quite terminal beaks, without a nacreous layer within. Small septum (myophore of anterior adductor) across beak cavity. Ligament immersed. Posterior adductor scar very long. Mantle margins concrescent, leaving only siphonal and small pedal openings. Byssiferous.

Dreissenidae [Dreissenacea, Dreissenoidea]
    |–Dreissenomya schroeckingeri TW07
    |–Sinucongeria TW07
    |–Mytilopsis Conrad 1857 [=Mytiloides (l. c.) non Brongniart 1822] PB27
    |    |–*M. leucophaeatus Conrad 1857 [=Dreissena leucophaeata, Mytiloides leucophaetus] PB27
    |    |–M. cira Pilsbry & Olsson 1935 G88
    |    |–M. sallei HJ08
    |    `–‘Dreissena’ scripta [=Mytiloides scriptus] PB27
    |–Dreissena Van Beneden 1835 PB27 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |–*D. polymorpha (Pallas 1771) PB27, M12 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |–D. bugensis Andrusov 1897 SS97
    |    |–‘Dreissensia’ caspia Eichw. 1855 S01
    |    |–D. rostriformis KC11
    |    |–D. sallei [=Mytilus sallei] C64
    |    `–D. stankovici PC11
    `–Congeria Partsch 1836 BV86 [incl. Enocephalus v. Münster 1831 (n. n.) PB27, Praxis Adams & Adams 1857 PB27]
         |–*C. subglobosa Partsch 1836 PB27
         |–C. africana (Van Beneden 1835) [=Dreissena africana, *Praxis africana] PB27
         |–‘Mytilus’ cochleatus Kickx in Nyst 1835 PB27
         |–C. cyanea (Van Beneden 1837) [=Dreissena cyanea] PB27
         |–C. gibberosa (Preston 1909) [=Dreissensia gibberosa] PB27
         |–C. holmi (d’Ailly 1896) [=Dreissensia holmi] PB27
         |–C. kusceri Bole 1962 BV86
         |–C. lacustris (Morelet 1860) [=Dreissena lacustris, Dreissensia lacustris] PB27
         |–C. lunata Hedley 1902 H09
         `–C. ornata (Morelet 1885) [=Dreissensia ornata; incl. D. bananaensis Preston 1909] PB27

Nomina nuda: Enocephalus carditaeformis von Münster 1831 PB27
             Enocephalus mytiloides von Münster 1831 PB27

Dreissena Van Beneden 1835 PB27 [=Dreissensia PB27, Mytilina Cantraine 1837 non Bory de St Vincent 1826 PB27, Mytilomya Cantraine in Bronn 1838 PB27; incl. Tichogonia Rossmäsler 1835 G40]

*Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas 1771) PB27, M12 [=Mytilus polymorphus PB27, *Mytilina polymorpha PB27, *Mytilomya polymorpha PB27; incl. Mytilus arca G40, Mytilus chemnitzii G40, Tichogonia chemnitzii G40, Mytilus hagenii G40, Mytilus lineatus G40, Mytilus toreyi G40, Mytilus volgae G40, Mytilus volgensis G40]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BV86] Bole, J., & F. Velkovrh. 1986. Mollusca from continental subterranean aquatic habitats. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 177–208. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[G40] Gray, J. E. 1840. A Manual of the Land and Fresh-water Shells of the British Islands, with figures of each of the kinds. By William Turton, M.D. A new edition, thoroughly revised and much enlarged. Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longmans: London.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[HJ08] Huisman, J. M., D. S. Jones, F. E. Wells & T. Burton. 2008. Introduced marine biota in Western Australian waters. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 1–44.

[KC11] Kocot, K. M., J. T. Cannon, C. Todt, M. R. Citarella, A. B. Kohn, A. Meyer, S. R. Santos, C. Schander, L. L. Moroz, B. Lieb & K. M. Halanych. 2011. Phylogenomics reveals deep molluscan relationships. Nature 477: 452–456.

[M12] Morton, B. 2012. The biology and functional morphology of Nucula pusilla (Bivalvia: Protobranchia: Nuculidae) from Western Australia, Australia: primitive or miniature simplicity? Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (2): 85–100.

[PC11] Plazzi, F., A. Ceregato, M. Taviani & M. Passamonti. 2011. A molecular phylogeny of bivalve mollusks: ancient radiations and divergences as revealed by mitochondrial genes. PLoS One 6 (11): e27147.

[SS97] Schloesser, D. W., R. D. Smithee, G. D. Longton & W. P. Kovalak. 1997. Zebra mussel induced mortality of unionids in firm substrata of western Lake Erie and a habitat for survival. American Malacological Bulletin 14 (1): 67–74.

[S01] Sturany, R. 1901. Csigák és kagylók [Mollusken]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 69–74. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[TW07] Taylor, J. D., S. T. Williams, E. A. Glover & P. Dyal. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of heterodont bivalves (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Heterodonta): new analyses of 18S and 28S rRNA genes. Zoologica Scripta 36 (6): 587–606.

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