Drosophila (Drosophila)

 Drosophila virilis, photographed by Darren J. Obbard.

Belongs within: Drosophila.

Drosophila subgenus Drosophila is one of the major recognised subdivisions of the large genus Drosophila. Two major subdivisions have been recognised within the subgenus as the virilis-repleta and quinaria-tripunctata sections; a phylogenetic study by Robe et al. (2005) supported the monophyly of the former as well as a clade including most (but not all) species studied of the latter. The same phylogenetic analysis also suggested that some lineages recognised as distinct genera may be nested within the subgenus.

Characters (from Singh et al. 2004): Gena often broad; second oral bristle large; prescutellar acrostichals not, or barely, enlarged; propleural bristle absent; apical bands on anterior abdominal tergites, when present, usually interrupted in midline; usually rather large species.

<==Drosophila Fallén 1823 (Drosophila)SDF04
    |--+--+--D. nannoptera groupCE79
    |  |  |    |--D. (D.) nannopteraRV05
    |  |  |    `--D. (D.) pacheaCE79
    |  |  `--D. (D.) pallidipennisRV05
    |  |       |--D. p. pallidipennisD51
    |  |       `--D. p. centralisD51
    |  `--D. virilis-repleta sectionRV05
    |       |  i. s.: D. (D.) araceaT68
    |       |         D. (D.) bromeliaeT68
    |       |         D. (D.) castaneaT68
    |       |         D. (D.) micromelanicaT68
    |       |         D. (D.) paramelanicaT68
    |       |         D. (D.) peruvianaT68
    |       |         D. (D.) serenensisT68
    |       |         D. (D.) tiraT68
    |       |--+--D. (D.) robustaRV05
    |       |  `--D. virilis groupCE79
    |       |       |--D. (D.) americanaCE79
    |       |       |    |--D. a. americanaCE79
    |       |       |    `--D. a. texanaCE79
    |       |       |--D. (D.) borealisCE79
    |       |       |--D. (D.) ezoanaCE79
    |       |       |--D. (D.) flavomontanaCE79
    |       |       |--D. (D.) lacicolaCE79
    |       |       |--D. (D.) littoralisCE79
    |       |       |--D. (D.) lummeiCE79
    |       |       |--D. (D.) montanaCE79
    |       |       |    |--D. m. montanaCE79
    |       |       |    `--D. m. ovivororumCE79
    |       |       |--D. (D.) novamexicanaCE79
    |       |       `--D. (D.) virilisRV05
    |       `--+--+--D. annulimana groupRV05
    |          |  |    |--D. (D.) annulimanaRV05
    |          |  |    `--D. (D.) aracatacasRV05
    |          |  `--D. flavopilosa groupRV05
    |          |       |--D. (D.) cestriRV05
    |          |       |--D. (D.) flavopilosaRV05
    |          |       `--D. (D.) incomptaRV05
    |          `--+--D. (D.) canalineaRV05
    |             `--+--D. dreyfusi groupRV05
    |                |    |--D. (D.) camargoiRV05
    |                |    `--D. (D.) dreyfusiRV05
    |                `--+--D. repleta groupRV05
    |                   |    |  i. s.: D. (D.) nigrohydeiRV05
    |                   |    |         D. melanopalpa subgroupCE79
    |                   |    |           |--D. (D.) fulvimaculaCE79
    |                   |    |           |--D. (D.) melanopalpaCE79
    |                   |    |           `--D. (D.) repleta Wollaston 1858CE79, SDF04
    |                   |    |--D. mercatorum subgroupCE79
    |                   |    |    |--D. (D.) mercatorumRV05
    |                   |    |    `--D. (D.) paranaensisCE79
    |                   |    `--+--D. hydei subgroupCE79
    |                   |       |    |--D. (D.) bifurcaCE79
    |                   |       |    |--D. (D.) eohydeiCE79
    |                   |       |    |--D. (D.) hydeiRV05
    |                   |       |    `--D. (D.) neohydeiCE79
    |                   |       `--+--D. mulleri subgroupCE79
    |                   |          |    |--D. (D.) aldrichiCE79
    |                   |          |    |--D. (D.) arizonensisCE79
    |                   |          |    |--D. (D.) buzzatiiRV05
    |                   |          |    |--D. (D.) meridianaCE79
    |                   |          |    |--D. (D.) mohavensisCE79
    |                   |          |    |--D. (D.) mulleriCE79
    |                   |          |    `--D. (D.) navajoaCE79
    |                   |          `--+--D. (D.) borboremaRV05
    |                   |             `--D. (D.) seridoRV05
    |                   `--D. mesophragmatica groupRV05
    |                        |--D. (D.) viracochiRV05
    |                        `--+--+--D. (D.) gauchaRV05
    |                           |  `--D. (D.) pavaniRV05
    |                           `--+--D. (D.) mesophragmaticaRV05
    |                              `--+--D. (D.) brnciciRV05
    |                                 `--D. (D.) gasiciRV05
    `--+--+--Liodrosophila aereaRV05
       |  `--ZaprionusRV05
       |       |--Z. indianusRV05
       |       `--Z. tuberculatusRV05
       `--+--+--Samoaia leonensisRV05
          |  `--Hirtodrosophila Duda 1923RV05, SDF04 [=Dasydrosophila Duda 1925SDF04]
          |       |--*H. latifrontata (Fronta-Pessoa 1945) (see below for synonymy)SDF04
          |       |--H. batracida [=Drosophila (Hirtodrosophila) batracida]G10
          |       `--H. pictiventrisRV05
          `--+--D. (D.) immigrans Sturtevant 1921RV05, SDF04
             `--+--D. quinaria groupRV05
                |    |--D. (D.) kunzeiCE79
                |    |--D. (D.) phalerataRV05
                |    `--D. (D.) quinariaRV05
                `--+--+--*D. (D.) funebris (Fabricius 1787)SDF04, RV05, SDF04 [=Musca funebrisSDF04]
                   |  `--D. testacea groupRV05
                   |       |--D. (D.) putridaRV05
                   |       `--D. (D.) testaceaRV05
                   `--+--D. (D.) nappae [incl. D. angustibucca]RV05
                      `--+--D. cardini groupRV05
                         |    |--D. (D.) polymorphaRV05
                         |    `--+--D. (D.) cardiniRV05
                         |       `--+--D. (D.) cardinoidesRV05
                         |          `--D. (D.) neocardiniRV05
                         `--+--+--D. (D.) tripunctataRV05
                            |  `--+--D. (D.) bandeirantorumRV05
                            |     `--D. (D.) mediopunctataRV05
                            `--+--+--D. (D.) callopteraRV05
                               |  `--+--D. (D.) paramediostriataRV05
                               |     `--D. guaramunu groupRV05
                               |          |--D. (D.) griseolineataRV05
                               |          |--D. (D.) guaramunuRV05
                               |          `--D. (D.) maculifronsRV05
                               `--+--D. (D.) mediostriata [incl. D. crocina]RV05
                                  `--D. guarani groupRV05
                                       |  i. s.: D. (D.) guaraniRV05
                                       |--D. (D.) ornatifronsRV05
                                       `--+--D. (D.) guaruRV05
                                          `--D. (D.) subbadiaRV05
Drosophila (Drosophila) incertae sedis:
  D. (D.) analspina Singh & Negi 1995SDF04
  D. (D.) bageshwarensis Singh, Dash & Fartyal 2004SDF04
  D. (D.) bishti Singh & Negi 1995SDF04
  D. (D.) elongata Singh, Dash & Fartyal 2004SDF04
  D. (D.) falleniT68
  D. (D.) hexaspina Singh, Dash & Fartyal 2004SDF04
  D. (D.) hypocaustaT68
  D. (D.) khansuensis Singh, Dash & Fartyal 2004SDF04
  D. (D.) lacertosa Okada 1956SDF04
  D. (D.) medioimpressaRV05
  D. (D.) nainitalensis Singh & Bhatt 1988SDF04
  D. (D.) nasuta Lamb 1914SDF04
  D. (D.) paharpaniensis Singh, Dash & Fartyal 2004SDF04
  D. (D.) painii Singh & Negi 1995SDF04
  D. (D.) paramarginata Singh, Dash & Fartyal 2004SDF04
  D. (D.) paunai Singh & Negi 1989SDF04
  D. (D.) procardinoidesT68
  D. (D.) serrata Singh, Dash & Fartyal 2004SDF04
  D. (D.) stictaT68
  D. (D.) sulfurigaster Duda 1923SDF04
  D. (D.) surangensis Singh, Dash & Fartyal 2004SDF04
  D. (D.) trisetosa Okada 1966SDF04
  D. (D.) trizonata Okada 1966SDF04
  D. (D.) uninubesT68
  0--D. (D.) mediopictaRV05
  `--+--+--D. (D.) cuasoRV05
     |  `--D. (D.) metziiRV05
     `--+--D. (D.) mediosignataRV05
        `--D. (D.) paraguayensisRV05

*Hirtodrosophila latifrontata (Fronta-Pessoa 1945) [=Drosophila carinata Duda 1923 non Grimshaw 1901, D. (*Hirtodrosophila) latifrontata]SDF04

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[CE79] Coyne, J. A., W. F. Eanes, J. A. M. Ramshaw & R. K. Koehn. 1979. Electrophoretic heterogeneity of α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase among many species of Drosophila. Systematic Zoology 28 (2): 164–175.

[D51] Dobzhansky, T. 1951. Genetics and the Origin of Species 3rd ed. Columbia University Press: New York.

[G10] Grimaldi, D. 2010. Drosophilidae (small fruit flies, pomace flies, vinegar flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1197–1206. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[RV05] Robe, L. J., V. L. S. Valente, M. Budnik & E. L. S. Loreto. 2005. Molecular phylogeny of the subgenus Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae) with an emphasis on Neotropical species and groups: a nuclear versus mitochondrial gene approach. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 623–640.

[SDF04] Singh, B. K., S. Dash & R. S. Fartyal. 2004. Revision of the species of the subgenus Drosophila (Drosophila) of the Kumaon region, India, with the description of eight new species. Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 163–176.

[T68] Throckmorton, L. H. 1968. Concordance and discordance of taxonomic characters in Drosophila classification. Systematic Zoology 17 (4): 355–387.

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