Dryophthorinae

Granary weevil Sitophilus granarius, copyright Mark Gurney.

Belongs within: Curculionidae.
Contains: Stromboscerini, Diocalandrina, Diathetes, Sphenophorus.

The Dryophthorinae are a primarily tropical group of weevils in which the basal segment of the antennal club is glabrous and notably glossy (Anderson 2002).

Characters (from Anderson 2002): Body surface lacking broad flat scales; mouthparts with prementum withdrawn into oral cavity, palpi mostly or entirely concealed; antenna usually inserted near base of rostrum, with scape usually long, projecting some distance beyond hind margin of eye and not fitting into antennal scrobe; antennal club of two basic parts, with basal glabrous and glossy portion, and apical uniformly pilose portion; funicle with 4, 5 or 6 articles; tarsus with claws widely separated by dermal lobes extended between them from both dorsal and ventral surfaces at apex of article 5; pygydium formed of tergite 7 in male.

<==Dryophthorinae [Dryophthori, Dryophthorides, Gymnopygi, Orthognathinae, Rhynchophorinae, Sipalininae]
    |--LitosominiL20
    |    |--DiocalandrinaL20
    |    |--Toxorhinus Lacordaire 1865 [Litosomina]L20
    |    |--Polytus Faust 1894Z93 [PolytinaL20, Polytini]
    |    |    `--P. mellerborgii (Boheman 1838) (see below for synonymy)Z93
    |    |--CrepidotinaL20
    |    |    |--Dyspnoetus Faust 1894L20
    |    |    |--Crepidotus Schoenherr 1838L20
    |    |    |    `--C. variolosa Klug 1833L20
    |    |    `--Eugnoristus Schoenherr 1838L20
    |    |         `--E. monacha (Olivier 1807)L20
    |    |--LaogeniniL20
    |    |    |--Autonopis Pascoe 1874L20
    |    |    |--Brenthidogenia Heller 1926L20
    |    |    |--Laodaria Heller 1926L20
    |    |    |--Tatiotimus Heller 1926L20
    |    |    |--Timiotatus Faust 1899L20
    |    |    `--Laogenia Pascoe 1874L20
    |    |         `--L. intrusaMac86
    |    `--Sitophila [Sitophili, Sitophilina, Sitophilini]L20
    |         |--Tryphetus Faust 1894L20
    |         `--Sitophilus Schoenherr 1838LB20, Z93
    |              |--*S. oryzae (Linnaeus 1763)Z93 (see below for synonymy)
    |              |--S. glandiusZ93
    |              |--S. granarius (Linnaeus 1758) [=Curculio granarius, Calandra granaria]Z93
    |              |--S. linearis (Herbst 1795)Z93 (see below for synonymy)
    |              |--S. mexicanus (Champion 1910) [=Calandra mexicana]Z93
    |              |--S. rugicollisZ93
    |              `--S. zeamais Motschulsky 1855 (see below for synonymy)Z93
    `--+--Rhynchophorus Herbst 1795LB20, Z93 [=Cordyle Thunberg 1797Z93; Rhynchophorina, Rhynchophorini]
       |    |--*R. palmarum (Linnaeus 1758)Z93, L58 (see below for synonymy)
       |    |--R. cruentatus (Fabricius 1775)A02 [=Curculio cruentatusM94]
       |    |--R. ferrugineus (Olivier 1791)B14 [=Curculio ferrugineusZ93, Calandra ferrugineaZ93]
       |    |--R. kaupii [incl. R. velutinus]Mac86
       |    `--R. vulneratusB14
       `--Sphenophorini [Sphenophorides, Sphenophorina]Z93
            |--Barystethus melanosoma Boisduval 1835Z93, Mas86 [=Calandra melanosomaZ93; incl. B. aterZ93]
            |--DiathetesZ93
            |--SphenophorusLB20
            |--Iphthimorhinus Roelofs 1892 [incl. Flamingorhynchus Heller 1901]Z93
            |    `--*I. australasiae Roelofs 1892 [incl. Flamingorhynchus helleri Bovie 1903, *F. weiskei Heller 1901]Z93
            |--Trigonotarsus Guérin-Méneville 1834Z93
            |    `--T. rugosus (Boisduval 1835) [=Calandra rugosa; incl. *T. calandroides Guérin-Méneville 1844]Z93
            |--Sphenocorynes [Sphenocorynina]L20
            |    `--S. confornis Pascoe 1887L20
            |--Cosmopolites Chevrolat 1885Z93
            |    |--*C. sordidus (Germar 1824)Z93 (see below for synonymy)
            |    `--C. pruinosus Heller 1934Z93
            |--Rhodobaenus LeConte 1876 [incl. Homalostylus Chevrolat 1885]A02
            |    |--R. quinquepunctatus (Say 1824)A02
            |    `--R. tredecimpunctatus (Illiger 1794)A02
            |--Scyphophorus Schoenherr 1838 non Ach. ex Michx. 1803 (ICBN)A02
            |    |--S. acupunctatus Gyllenhal 1838A02
            |    `--S. yuccae Horn 1873A02
            |--Metamasius Horn 1873 (see below for synonymy)A02
            |    |--M. callizona (Chevrolat 1883)A02
            |    |--M. hemipterus (Linnaeus 1758)A02
            |    |--M. mosieri Barber 1920A02
            |    `--M. quadrilineatusWZ10
            |--Rhabdoscelus Marshall 1943 [=Rhabdocnemis Faust 1894 non Pomel 1872]Z93
            |    |--*R. maculatus [=Sphenophorus maculatus, *Rhabdocnemis maculata]Z93
            |    |--R. asperipennis (Fairmaire 1878) [=Calandra asperipennis]Z93
            |    |--R. interstitialis (Boheman 1859) [=Sphenophorus interstitialis, Calandra interstitialis]Z93
            |    `--R. obscurus (Boisduval 1835) (see below for synonymy)Z93
            `--Cactophagus LeConte 1876 [incl. Eucactophagus Champion 1910, Phyllerythrurus Chevrolat 1885]A02
                 |--C. fahraeiB14
                 |--C. graphipterus (Champion 1910)A02
                 |--C. spinolae (Gyllenhal 1838)B14
                 `--C. validusPI02
Dryophthorinae incertae sedis:
  LithophthorusB14
  SpodotribusB14
  PsilodryophthorusB14
  Mesocordylus Lac. 1866ML05, FS90
    |--M. cylindraceusML05
    `--M. porriginosus Boh. 1838 [incl. M. guadeloupensis, M. sordidus]FS90
  Stenommatus Wollaston 1873Z93
    |--*S. fryi Wollaston 1873Z93
    |--S. inflexus Hustache 1938Z93
    |--S. musae Marshall 1920Z93
    |--S. nanusZ93
    |--S. ocularis [=Dryophthorus ocularis]Z93
    `--S. sulcifronsZ93
  CyrtotrachelusDK08
  PoteriophorusL20
  Cryptodermatini [Oxyrhynchides]L20
  OxyopisthiniL20
  OmmatolampiniL20
  SipalomiminiL20
    |--Sipalomimus Voss 1958L20
    `--Trochorhopalus Kirsch 1877L20
  Rhinostomini [Rhinostomina]B14
    |--Yuccaborus LeConte 1876A02
    |    `--Y. frontalis (LeConte 1876)A02
    `--RhinostomusB14
         |--R. barbirostris (Fabricius 1775)B14
         `--R. nigerB14
  Dryophthorus Germar 1824Z93 (see below for synonymy)
    |--*D. corticalis (Paykull 1792)Z93, L20 [=Curculio corticalisZ93, *Bulbifer corticalisZ93]
    |--D. americanus Bedel 1885B14
    |--D. assimilis Gahan 1900JG19
    |--*Tetraspartus’ bagoides Pascoe 1885Z93
    |--D. crenatus Eschscholtz in Boisduval 1835B35
    |--‘Curculio’ lymexylonZ93
    `--*Tetratemnus’ sculpturatus Wollaston 1873Z93
  Orthognathini [Orthognathina, Sipalides, Sipalini]L20
    |--Orthognathus Schoenherr 1838 [incl. Sphenognathus Schoenherr 1840]A02
    |    `--O. subparallelus (Chevrolat 1880)A02
    `--Sipalinus Marshall 1943Z93 (see below for synonymy)
         |--S. gigas (Fabricius 1775)B14 [=Calandra gigasB35]
         |    |--S. g. gigasZ93
         |    `--*S. g. granulatus (Fabricius 1801) (see below for synonymy)Z93
         `--S. hypocritaZ93
  StrombosceriniL20

*Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar 1824)Z93 [=Calandra sordidusZ93, Sphenophorus sordidusFS90; incl. S. crenatus Sturm 1826FS90, S. cribricollis Walker 1859Z93, S. javanusFS90, S. pygidialis Chv. 1880FS90, S. striatus Fahraeus 1845Z93]

Dryophthorus Germar 1824Z93 [=Bulbifer Dejean 1821 (n. o.)Z93, Dryophora Berthold 1827A02; incl. Tetraspartus Pascoe 1885Z93, Tetratemnus Wollaston 1873Z93; DryophthoriniL20]

Metamasius Horn 1873 [incl. Metmasiopsis Champion 1910, Odontorhynchus Chevrolat 1880, Odontorrhynchus Kirby 1881, Subphyllerythrurus Voss 1954]A02

Polytus mellerborgii (Boheman 1838) [=Sitophilus mellerborgii, Calandra mellenborgi (l. c.), Polytus mellenborgi (l. c.); incl. Sphenophorus musaecola Fairmaire 1898, Calandra remota Sharp 1885]Z93

Rhabdoscelus obscurus (Boisduval 1835) [=Calandra obscura, Rhabdocnemis obscura, Sphenophorus obscurus; incl. S. beccarii Pascoe 1885, Rhabdocnemis beccarii, Rhabdocnemis obscurus var. fausti Gahan 1900, Sphenophorus insularis Boheman 1859, S. interruptecostatus Schaufuss 1885, Rhabdocnemis interruptecostata, S. nudicollis Kirsch 1877, Rhabdocnemis nudicollis, S. promissus Pascoe 1885, Rhabdocnemis promissus, S. sulcipes Karsch 1881, S. tincturatus Pascoe 1885]Z93

*Rhynchophorus palmarum (Linnaeus 1758)Z93, L58 [=Curculio palmarumZ93, Calendra palmarumL02, *Cordyle palmarumZ93; incl. R. palmarum var. depressus Chevrolat 1880FS90, R. palmarum var. lanuginosus Chevrolat 1880FS90]

Sipalinus Marshall 1943Z93 [incl. Hyposipalus Voss 1940 (nom. inv.)Z93, Sipalus Schoenherr 1825 non Fischer 1813Z93]

*Sipalinus gigas granulatus (Fabricius 1801) [=Calandra granulata, Sipalus granulatus; incl. Sipalus cristatus Schaufuss 1885, Sipalus misumenus Boheman 1845]Z93

Sitophilus linearis (Herbst 1795)Z93 [=Rhynchophorus linearisZ93, Calandra (Cassenus) linearisZ93, G20; incl. Ca. frugilegaFS90, Cordyle striatus Thunberg 1815Z93, Sitophilus linearis striatusZ93, S. tamarindi Christy 1834Z93]

*Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus 1763)Z93 [=Curculio orysaZ93, Calandra orizae (l. c.)Z93, Ca. oryzaeZ93, Curculio oryzaeZ93; incl. Ca. cylindricostaFS90, Ca. frugilegaFS90, Ca. oryzae var. minor Sasaki 1899Z93, Ca. quadriguttata Montr. 1860FS90, Ca. sasakii Takahashi 1928Z93, Ca. oryzae var. unicolor Marsh. 1802FS90]

Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky 1855 [incl. Calandra chilensis Philippi 1864, Ca. oryzae platensis Zacher 1922, Cossonus quadrimacula Walker 1859]Z93

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A02] Anderson, R. S. 2002. Curculionidae Latreille 1802. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 722–815. CRC Press.

[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d’Urville. Faune entomologique de l’océan Pacifique, avec l’illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature’s gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[DK08] Dohm, P., D. Kovač, A. Freidberg & R. Bin Hashim. 2008. Biology of the Oriental bamboo-inhabiting fly Felderimyia gombakensis and observations on mating trophallaxis in Felderimyia (Insecta, Diptera, Tephritidae, Phytalmiinae, Acanthonevrini). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (2): 311–318.

[FS90] Fleutiaux, E., & A. Sallé. 1890. Liste des coléoptères de la Guadeloupe et descriptions d’espèces nouvelles. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 351–484.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[JG19] James, D. J., P. T. Green, W. F. Humphreys & J. C. Z. Woinarski. 2019. Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34 (2): 55–114.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L20] Legalov, A. A. 2020. Annotated key to weevils of the world. Part 4. Subfamilies Erirhininae, Dryophthorinae and Cossoninae (Curculionidae). Ukrainian Journal of Ecology 10 (2): 319–331.

[LB20] Letsch, H., M. Balke, E. F. A. Toussaint & A. Riedel. 2020. Historical biogeography of the hyperdiverse hidden snout weevils (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Cryptorhynchinae). Systematic Entomology 45: 312–326.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[Mac86] Macleay, W. 1886. The insects of the Fly River, New Guinea, “Coleoptera” (continued). Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 183–204.

[ML05] Marvaldi, A. E., & A. A. Lanteri. 2005. Key to higher taxa of South American weevils based on adult characters (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea). Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 78: 65–87.

[Mas86] Masters, G. 1886. Catalogue of the described Coleoptera of Australia. Part V. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (3): 585–686.

[M94] May, B. M. 1994. An introduction to the immature stages of Australian Curculionoidea. In: Zimmerman, E. C. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 2. Brentidae, Eurhynchidae, Apionidae and a chapter on immature stages by Brenda May pp. 365–728. CSIRO Australia.

[PI02] Philips, T. K., & M. A. Ivie. 2002. Bothrideridae Erichson 1845. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 358–362. CRC Press.

[WZ10] Wood, D. M., & M. A. Zumbado. 2010. Tachinidae (tachinid flies, parasitic flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1343–1417. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[Z93] Zimmerman, E. C. 1993. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 3. Nanophyidae, Rhynchophoridae, Erirhinidae, Curculionidae: Amycterinae, literature consulted. CSIRO Australia.

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