Dynastinae

Male Dipelicus geryon, from Drury (1773).

Belongs within: Rutelinae.
Contains: Cryptodus, Phileurina, Oryctes, Pseudoryctina, Pimelopus, Neodon, Cheiroplatys, Trissodon, Novapus.

The Dynastinae are a group of scarabaeid beetles whose larvae mostly feed on roots or decaying vegetation in soil or rotten logs. Members are often sexually dimorphic with males bearing prominent horns and/or other protuberances or concavities on the head and pronotum. The majority of species are univoltine though some larger species may require two or three years to develop (Cassis & Weir 1992).

Species of Dynastinae are divided between several tribes with the Cyclocephalini being a primarily New World group lacking tubercles, horns, carinae or foveae on the head and pronotum in both sexes. The Phileurini have a sharply acuminate clypeus and the mentum greatly enlarged to cover the base of the labial palps. The upper apical angle of the hind tibia is often extended into a large tooth in Dynastini and Oryctini but not in Pentodontini (Ratcliffe et al. 2002).

Characters (from Cassis & Weir 1992): Adult with mandibles usually at least partly visible from above; elytra without narrow membranous margin, pygidium at least partly exposed; mid coxae transverse, not produced ventrally; mesothoracic epimera not visible from above; tarsal claws equal; abdominal spiracles diverging, several lying on abdominal sternites, at least two pairs exposed beneath elytra; sexual dimorphism often markedly developed, head and/or pronotum of males usually bearing horns, tubercles, or complex excavations and elevations. Larva with head usually strongly punctated; apical antennal segment as wide as penultimate; labrum symmetrical with deeply pigmented notch on right side of midline; mandible with ventral stridulatory area; maxilla with stridulatory teeth on dorsal edge bluntly rounded; galea and lacinia fused to form mala; legs long, hind coxa larger than width of clypeus; sternum 9 without raster of longitudinal row of spines; anal cleft transverse.

<==Dynastinae [Dynastidae, Dynastides, Strategidae]
|--Agaocephalini [Agaocephalidae, Agaocephalides, Agaocephalinae]RJS02
|--Oryctoderus Boisduval 1835 [Oryctoderini]CW92
| `--*O. latitarsis Boisduval 1835 [incl. O. obtusilobus Fairmaire 1877]CW92
|--Hexodon [Hexodontini]B14
| |--H. reticulatumL02
| `--H. unicolor Olivier 1789B14 [=Rutela unicolorG20]
|--PhileuriniCW92
| | i. s.: Hemiphileurus Kolbe 1910 [incl. Epiphileurus Kolbe 1910]RJS02
| | `--H. illatusRJS02
| |--CryptodusC57
| `--PhileurinaC57
|--Oryctini [Oryctides]CW92
| |--OryctesCW92
| |--AugosomaC57
| |--Oryctoderinus Endrödi 1978CW92
| | `--*O. walfordorum Endrödi 1978CW92
| |--Xyloryctes Hope 1837RJS02
| | `--X. jamaicensisRJS02
| `--Strategus Kirby 1828 [incl. Anastrategus Casey 1915, Strategodes Casey 1915, Strategopsis Chapin 1932]RJS02
| |--S. aloeus (Linnaeus 1758)B14
| |--S. syphax Fab. 1775 [incl. S. geminatus Sturm 1826, S. sarpedon, S. tricornis]FS90
| `--S. vulcanus Fab. 1792FS90
|--Cyclocephalini [Cyclocephalidae, Cyclocephalides, Cyclocephalinae]RJS02
| |--RuteloryctesRJS02
| |--Ancognatha Erichson 1847RJS02
| | `--A. mancaRJS02
| |--Dyscinetus Harold 1869 [incl. Chalepus MacLeay 1819 non Thunberg 1805, Palechus Casey 1915]RJS02
| | |--D. moratorRJS02
| | `--D. picipes Burmeister 1847 [incl. D. geminatus]FS90
| `--Cyclocephala Dejean 1821 (see below for synonymy)RJS02
| |--*C. amazona (Linnaeus 1767) [=Melolontha amazona]CW92
| |--C. borealisT90
| |--C. grandis Burm. 1847 [incl. C. collaris]FS90
| |--C. immaculataT90
| |--C. rustica Ol. 1789 [incl. C. hepatica Sturm 1843]FS90
| |--C. signaticollis Burmeister 1847CW92
| `--C. tridentata Fab. 1801 [incl. C. baccicolor, C. biliturata, C. ferruginea, C. rubiginosa]FS90
|--DynastiniCW92
| |--BeckiusB14
| |--PachyoryctesB14
| |--XyloscaptesB14
| |--AllomyrinaB14
| |--Xylotrupes Hope 1837CW92
| | `--*X. gideon (Linnaeus 1767)CW92 (see below for synonymy)
| |--Haploscapanes Arrow 1908 [incl. Liteupatorus Prell 1911]CW92
| | |--*H. barbarossa (Fabricius 1775)CW92 (see below for synonymy)
| | |--H. australicus (Arrow 1908)CW92 (see below for synonymy)
| | `--H. inermis (Prell 1911) [=Liteupatorus inermis]CW92
| |--Eupatorus gracilicornis Arrow 1908B14
| | |--E. g. gracilicornisB14
| | |--E. g. edaiB14
| | `--E. g. kimioiB14
| |--Trypoxylus dichotomus (Linnaeus 1771)B14
| | |--T. d. dichotomusB14
| | |--T. d. septentrionalisB14
| | `--T. d. tsunobosonisB14
| |--ChalcosomaB14
| | |--C. atlas (Linnaeus 1758) (see below for synonymy)B14
| | |--C. chironB14
| | |--C. engganensisB14
| | `--C. moellenkampiB14
| |--Megasoma Kirby 1825 [incl. Lyphontes Bruch 1910, Megalosoma Burmeister 1841, Megasominus Casey 1915]RJS02
| | |--M. elephas (Fabricius 1775)B14
| | |--M. marsB14
| | |--M. nogueiraiB14
| | `--M. occidentalisB14
| `--Dynastes MacLeay 1819 [incl. Theogenes Burmeister 1847]RJS02
| |--D. grantiB14
| |--D. hercules (Linnaeus 1758)B14 [incl. D. hercules var. perseus Ol. 1789FS90, D. scaber Linné 1758FS90]
| |--D. hyllusB14
| |--D. mayaB14
| |--D. moroniB14
| |--D. neptunusB14
| |--D. satanasB14
| `--D. tityus (Linnaeus 1763)B14
`--PentodontiniCW92
| i. s.: Neocorynophyllus Carne 1985CW92
| `--*N. aputaringus Carne 1985CW92
| Temnorrhynchus Hope 1837CW92
| `--*T. retusus (Fabricius 1781) [=Scarabaeus retusus, Geotrupes retusus]CW92
| Phyllognathus Eschscholtz 1830CW92
| |--‘Scarabaeus’ excavatus Forster 1771 [incl. S. silenus Fabricius 1775, *Phyllognathus silenus]CW92
| `--P. carnei Allsopp 1990CW92
| Aphonides Rivers 1889 [incl. Anoplognatho Rivers 1889]RJS02
| `--A. dunnianusRJS02
| Aphonus LeConte 1856RJS02
| Coscinocephalus Prell 1936 [incl. Anoplocephalus Schaeffer 1906]RJS02
| Euetheola Bates 1888RJS02
| |--E. humilisRJS02
| `--E. subglabraRJS02
| Gillaspytes Howden 1980RJS02
| `--G. janzeniRJS02
| Orizabus Fairmaire 1878 [incl. Aztecalius Casey 1915, Pseudaphonus Casey 1915]RJS02
| Oxygrylius Casey 1915RJS02
| `--O. ruginasusRJS02
| Tomarus Erichson 1847 (see below for synonymy)RJS02
| |--‘Ligyrus’ antillarum Beauv. 1805 [incl. L. humilis]FS90
| |--‘Ligyrus’ cordatus Fab. 1792 [incl. L. bituberculatus, L. fossor]FS90
| |--T. gibbosusRJS02
| `--‘Ligyrus’ tumulosusB28
|--PseudoryctinaCW92
|--Dipelicus Hope 1845CW92 (see below for synonymy)
| |--*D. cantori Hope 1842 [=Neodipelicus cantori]CW92
| |--D. bovilli (Blackburn 1888) [=*Palmerstonia bovilli; incl. D. trifidus Arrow 1937]CW92
| |--‘Geotrupes’ daedalus Fabricius 1792 [=*Camelonotus daedalus, *Horonotus daedalus, *Oronotus daedalus]CW92
| |--D. duplex (Sharp 1875) [=Horonotus duplex]CW92
| |--D. geryon Drury 1773 [=Neodipelicus geryon]CW92
| |--D. lobatus Lansberge 1879 [=Neodipelicus lobatus]CW92
| |--D. montrouzieri (Montrouzier 1860) [=Camelonotus montrouzieri]CW92
| `--D. optatus (Sharp 1875) (see below for synonymy)CW92
|--MetanastinaC57
| |--PimelopusC57
| |--NeodonC57
| |--Hyphoryctes Blackburn 1895C57, CW92
| | `--*H. maculatus Blackburn 1895CW92
| |--Papuana Arrow 1911 [incl. Eucopidocaulus Prell 1912]C57
| | |--*P. semistriata Arrow 1911CW92
| | `--P. woodlarkiana (Montrouzier 1855)CW92 (see below for synonymy)
| |--Neonastes Carne 1957C57, CW92
| | |--*N. glabricollis (Macleay 1887) [=Isodon glabricollis]CW92
| | `--N. uptoni Carne 1985CW92
| |--Heteronychus Burmeister 1847C57, CW92
| | |--*H. arator (Fabricius 1775)CW92 (see below for synonymy)
| | `--H. parumpunctatus Burmeister 1847CW92
| |--Metanastes Arrow 1911CW92
| | |--*M. australis (Fauvel 1862) [=Heteronychus australis]CW92
| | |--M. bicornis Lea 1919CW92
| | |--M. irregularis (Macleay 1871) [=Heteronychus irregularis]CW92
| | |--M. picipes (Macleay 1871)CW92 [=Heteronychus picipesCW92, Isodon picipesC57]
| | `--M. vulgivagus (Olliff 1889) (see below for synonymy)CW92
| `--Pentodon Hope 1837C57, CW92
| |--*P. punctatum (Villers 1789) [=Geotrupes punctatus]CW92
| |--P. algerinum (Herbst 1789) [=Scarabaeus algerinus]CW92
| |--P. guba Kirby 1818Mas86
| |--P. idiota (Herbst 1789)A06
| `--P. monodon Mulsant 1842 (see below for synonymy)C57
`--CheiroplatinaC57
|--CheiroplatysCW92
|--TrissodonC57
|--NovapusC57
|--Anomalomorpha Arrow 1908C57, CW92
| |--*A. anthracina Arrow 1908 [incl. A. flavipes Arrow 1908, A. geotrupina Arrow 1908]CW92
| `--A. giveni Carne 1957CW92
|--Neodasygnathus Carne 1957C57, CW92
| |--*N. juba (Kirby 1818)CW92 (see below for synonymy)
| |--N. corynophylloides Carne 1957CW92
| `--N. davidsoni Carne 1957CW92
|--Adoryphorus Blackburn 1889C57, CW92
| |--*A. coulonii (Burmeister 1847) [=Dasygnathus coulonii]CW92
| |--A. canei Carne 1957CW92
| `--A. mellori Carne 1957CW92
|--Dasygnathus Macleay 1819C57, CW92
| |--*D. dejeani Macleay 1819CW92 (see below for synonymy)
| |--D. blattocomes Carne 1978CW92
| |--D. globosus Arrow 1914CW92
| `--D. trituberculatus Blackburn 1889 (see below for synonymy)CW92
`--Semanopterus Hope 1847C57, CW92 (see below for synonymy)
|--*S. subcostatus (Castelnau 1840) (see below for synonymy)CW92
|--S. angustatus Blackburn 1888 [incl. S. concentricus Blackburn 1896]CW92
|--S. calabyi Carne 1957CW92
|--S. leai (Blackburn 1897) [=Asemantus leai; incl. A. pusillus Prell 1934]CW92
|--S. rectangulus Blackburn 1895 (see below for synonymy)CW92
|--S. solidus (Burmeister 1847) (see below for synonymy)CW92
`--S. tricostatus Blackburn 1896CW92

Dynastinae incertae sedis:
Archon centaurusGE05
GolofaB14
|--G. pizarroGE05
`--G. porteri Hope 1837B14
SpodistesB14
|--S. batesiB14
|--S. mniszechi (Thomson 1860)B14
`--S. monzoniB14
CarneodonMC13
Pericoptus truncatusMas86
ScapanesMac86
|--S. australisMHG04
`--S. politusMac86
‘Megacerus’ Burmeister 1847 non Fahraeus 1839Z94
CoelosisRD77
Hercules herculesC76
TemnorrhychodesC57
ToxophyllusC57
HomoeomorphusC57

Chalcosoma atlas (Linnaeus 1758) [incl. C. atlas butonensis, C. atlas keyboh, C. atlas mantetsu, C. atlas simeleuensis, C. atlas sintae]B14

Cyclocephala Dejean 1821 [incl. Aclinidia Casey 1915, Albridarollia Bolivar, Jiminez & Martínez 1963, Aspidodella Prell 1936, Aspidotites Höhne 1922, Diaptalia Casey 1915, Dichromina Casey 1915, Graphalia Casey 1915, Halotosia Casey 1915, Homochromina Casey 1915, Isocoryna Casey 1915, Mononidia Casey 1915, Ochrosidia Casey 1915, Paraclinidia Martínez 1965, Plagiosalia Casey 1915, Spilosota Casey 1915, Stigmalia Casey 1915]RJS02

*Dasygnathus dejeani Macleay 1819CW92 [=D. australis dejeaniB28; incl. D. aristidesMas86, Scarabaeus curtus Guérin-Méneville in Lesson 1838CW92, D. hospes Arrow 1914CW92, D. impotens Arrow 1914CW92, Scarabaeus ixion Boisduval 1835CW92, D. mastersii Macleay 1871CW92]

Dasygnathus trituberculatus Blackburn 1889 [incl. D. inermis Blackburn 1889, D. major Blackburn 1889, D. recticornis Blackburn 1889]CW92

Dipelicus Hope 1845CW92 [incl. Camelonotus Fairmaire 1883CW92, Horonotus Burmeister 1847CW92, Neodipelicus Ritsema 1887CW92, Oronotus Gemminger & Harold 1869 non Wesmael 1844CW92, Palmerstonia Blackburn 1888CW92; DipelicinaC57]

Dipelicus optatus (Sharp 1875) [=Horonotus optatus; incl. Palmerstonia minor Blackburn 1894, P. pusilla Blackburn 1896, Horonotus variolicollis Fairmaire 1879]CW92

Haploscapanes australicus (Arrow 1908)CW92 [=Eupatorus australicusCW92, *Liteupatorus australicusCW92; incl. E. barbarossa Burmeister 1857 non Scarabaeus barbarossa Fabricius 1775C57]

*Haploscapanes barbarossa (Fabricius 1775)CW92 [=Scarabaeus barbarossaCW92, Oryctes barbarossaL19; incl. Haploscapanes barbarossa similis Prell 1934CW92]

*Heteronychus arator (Fabricius 1775)CW92 [=Scarabaeus aratorCW92; incl. H. arator australis Endrödi 1961 non H. australis Fauvel 1862CW92, H. sanctaehelenae Blanchard 1846CW92, H. transvaalensis Péringuey 1901C57]

Metanastes vulgivagus (Olliff 1889) [=Heteronychus vulgivagus, Pentodon australis Blackburn 1888 non H. australis Fauvel 1862, Metanastes blackburni Arrow 1911]CW92

*Neodasygnathus juba (Kirby 1818)CW92 [=Scarabaeus jubaCW92; incl. Dasygnathus australis Boisduval 1835CW92, S. australisC57]

Papuana woodlarkiana (Montrouzier 1855)CW92 [=Scarabaeus woodlarkianusCW92; incl. P. armicollis var. laevipennis Arrow 1911C57, P. preussi Aulmann 1911C57, P. pygmaea Aulmann 1911C57, P. robusta Aulmann 1911C57, P. tenuestriata Aulmann 1911C57]

Pentodon monodon Mulsant 1842 [incl. P. balearicus Kraatz 1882, P. bispinosus Küster 1852, P. brunneus Mulsant 1842, P. cribratellus Fairmaire 1893, P. dispar Baudi 1870, P. syriacus Kraatz 1882]C57

Semanopterus Hope 1847C57, CW92 [=Semanotus (l. c.) non Mulsant 1839CW92; incl. Asemantus Blackburn 1896 non Förster 1878CW92, Asemopterus Prell 1936CW92]

Semanopterus rectangulus Blackburn 1895 [incl. S. carinatus Blackburn 1895, S. distributus Blackburn 1896, S. persimilis Blackburn 1895]CW92

Semanopterus solidus (Burmeister 1847) [=Scapanes solidus; incl. *Asemantus subaequalis Blackburn 1888 non Se. subaequalis Hope 1847, *Asemopterus subaequalis]CW92

*Semanopterus subcostatus (Castelnau 1840) [=Phileurus subcostatus; incl. S. adelaidae Hope 1847, S. convexiusculus Macleay 1871, S. depressiusculus Macleay 1871, S. depressus Hope 1847, S. longicollis Blackburn 1889, S. meridianus Blackburn 1896, S. minor Blackburn 1888, S. subaequalis Hope 1847]CW92

Tomarus Erichson 1847 [incl. Anagrylius Casey 1915, Euligyrus Casey 1915, Grylius Casey 1915, Ligyrellus Casey 1915, Ligyrodes Casey 1915, Ligyrus Burmeister 1847]RJS02

*Xylotrupes gideon (Linnaeus 1767)CW92 [=Scarabaeus gideonCW92; incl. S. gideon australicus Thomson 1859CW92, Xylotrupes australicusMas86]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A06] Ahrens, D. 2006. The phylogeny of Sericini and their position within the Scarabaeidae based on morphological characters (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Systematic Entomology 31: 113–144.

[B28] Betrem, J. G. 1928. Monographie der Indo-Australischen Scoliiden mit zoogeographischen Betrachtungen. H. Veenman & Zonen: Wageningen.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature’s gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[C57] Carne, P. B. 1957. A Systematic Revision of the Australian Dynastinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Division of Entomology, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Australia: Melbourne.

[CW92] Cassis, G., & T. A. Weir. 1992. Dynastinae. In: Houston, W. W. K. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 9. Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea pp. 383–425. AGPS Press: Canberra.

[C76] Costa, M. 1976. Dynastaspis hercules sp. n., a new gamasine mite associated with the Hercules beetles in Guadeloupe. Acarologia 18 (2): 187–193.

[FS90] Fleutiaux, E., & A. Sallé. 1890. Liste des coléoptères de la Guadeloupe et descriptions d’espèces nouvelles. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 351–484.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L19] Lea, A. M. 1919. Notes on some miscellaneous Coleoptera with descriptions of new species.—Part V. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 43: 166–261, pls 25–27.

[Mac86] Macleay, W. 1886. The insects of the Fly River, New Guinea, “Coleoptera”. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 136–157.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[Mas86] Masters, G. 1886. Catalogue of the described Coleoptera of Australia. Part III. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 21–126.

[MHG04] Maynard, G. V., J. G. Hamilton & J. F. Grimshaw. 2004. Quarantine—phytosanitary, sanitary and incursion management: an Australian entomological perspective. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 318–328.

[RJS02] Ratcliffe, B. C., M. L. Jameson & A. B. T. Smith. 2002. Scarabaeidae Latreille 1802. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 39–81. CRC Press.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[T90] Tashiro, H. 1990. Insecta: Coleoptera Scarabaeidae larvae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1191–1209. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[Z94] Zimmerman, E. C. 1994. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 2. Brentidae, Eurhynchidae, Apionidae and a chapter on immature stages by Brenda May. CSIRO Australia.

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