Echinoida

 

Purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, copyright Kirt L. Onthank.

 

Belongs within: Echinacea.
Contains: Strongylocentrotus, Echinus.

The Echinoida are a group of echinoids with a camarodont lantern known from the Palaeocene (possibly the Upper Cretaceous) to the present. Gill slits are shallow in most families but are narrow, distinct and commonly deep in Toxopneustidae (Fell & Pawson 1966).

Characters (from Fell & Pawson 1966): Lantern camarodont. Test not sculptured. Tubercles imperforate, noncrenulate. Spines solid.

<==Echinoida [Echinina]
    |  i. s.: Spaniocyphus Pomel 1883FP66
    |           `--*S. fallax [=Echinus fallax]FP66
    |         Trochoechinus de Loriol 1909FP66
    |           |--*T. zumoffeni (de Loriol 1902) [=Psammechinus zumoffeni]FP66
    |           `--T. tortonicusFP66
    |--StrongylocentrotidaeFP66
    |    |--StrongylocentrotusB01
    |    |--Allocentrotus Mortensen 1942FP66
    |    |    `--*A. fragilis (Jackson 1912) [=Strongylocentrotus fragilis]FP66
    |    `--Hemicentrotus Mortensen 1942 [incl. Discaster Agassiz 1872]FP66
    |         `--*H. pulcherrimus (Agassiz 1863) [=Sphaerechinus pulcherrimus]FP66
    |--ParechinidaeSG93
    |    |--Parechinus Mortensen 1903 [=Protocentrotus Döderlein 1906]FP66
    |    |    `--*P. angulosus (Leske 1778) [=Cidaris angulosa, *Protocentrotus angulosus]FP66
    |    `--Psammechinus Agassiz & Desor 1846SG93, FP66
    |         |--*P. miliaris (Müller 1771)FP66 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |--P. bernouillensis Valette 1908SG93
    |         |--P. biarritzensisSG93
    |         `--P. microtuberculatus [=Parechinus microtuberculatus]BK77
    |--Echinidae [Triplechinidae]FP66
    |    |--EchinusFP66
    |    |--Dermechinus Mortensen 1942FP66
    |    |    `--*D. horridus (Agassiz 1879) [=Echinus horridus]FP66
    |    |--Atactus Pomel 1883 [=Rotulechinus Lambert & Thiéry 1914]FP66
    |    |    `--*A. fischeri (Cotteau 1880) [=Psammechinus fischeri, *Rotulechinus fischeri]FP66
    |    |--Hypechinus Desor 1856FP66
    |    |    `--*H. patagonensis (d’Orbigny 1842) [=Echinus patagonensis]FP66
    |    |--Isechinus Lambert 1903FP66
    |    |    `--*I. praecursor (Ortmann 1904) [=Toxopneustes praecursor]FP66
    |    |--Polyechinus Mortensen 1942FP66
    |    |    `--*P. agulhensis (Döderlein 1905) [=Paracentrotus agulhensis]FP66
    |    |--Stirechinus Desor 1856 [=Styrechinus (l. c.)]FP66
    |    |    `--*S. scillae Desor 1856FP66
    |    |--Loxechinus Desor 1856FP66
    |    |    |--*L. albus (Molina 1782) [=Echinus albus]FP66
    |    |    `--L. bullatusD05
    |    |--Paracentrotus Mortensen 1903B01
    |    |    |--*P. lividus (Lamarck 1816)FP66 [=Echinus lividusBK77, Strongylocentrotus lividusBK77, Toxopneustes lividusBK77]
    |    |    `--P. bouryi (Cotteau 1883) [=Toxopneustes bouryi]SG93
    |    |--Gracilechinus Fell & Pawson 1966FP66
    |    |    |--*G. gracilis (Agassiz 1869) [=Echinus gracilis]FP66
    |    |    |--G. acutusFP66
    |    |    `--G. multidentatus (de Meijere 1904)MG-H11
    |    `--Sterechinus Koehler 1901FP66
    |         |--*S. antarcticus Koehler 1901FP66
    |         |--S. diademaD05
    |         |--S. horridusD05
    |         |--S. margaritaceusD05
    |         `--S. neumayeriAB01
    |--Echinometridae [Echinometradae]FP66
    |    |--Colobocentrotus Brandt 1835 [=Colobocentrus Gray 1840]FP66
    |    |    `--*C. mertensii Brandt 1835 [=*Colobocentrus mertensii]FP66
    |    |--Evechinus Verrill 1871FP66
    |    |    `--*E. chloroticus (Valenciennes 1846) [=Echinus chloroticus]FP66
    |    |--Anthocidaris Lutken 1864FP66
    |    |    `--*A. crassispina (Agassiz 1863) [=Toxocidaris crassispina]FP66
    |    |--Caenocentrotus Clark 1912FP66
    |    |    `--*C. gibbosus (Agassiz & Desor 1840) [=Echinus gibbosus]FP66
    |    |--Pachycentrotus Clark 1912 [=Cryptopora Agassiz 1872 non Jeffreys 1869, Pachechinus Agassiz 1872]FP66
    |    |    `--*P. australiae (Agassiz 1872) (see below for synonymy)FP66
    |    |--Podophora Agassiz 1840FP66
    |    |    `--*P. atrata (Linnaeus 1758) [=Echinus atratus]FP66
    |    |--Selenechinus de Meijere in Delage & Hérouard 1903FP66
    |    |    `--*S. armatus (de Meijere 1902) [=Echinus armatus]FP66
    |    |--Zenocentrotus Clark 1931FP66
    |    |    `--*Z. kellersi Clark 1931FP66
    |    |--Heterocentrotus Brandt 1835 [=Holocentronotus Gray 1855; incl. Acrocladia Agassiz & Desor 1846]FP66
    |    |    |--*H. mammillatus (Linnaeus 1758) [=Echinus mammillatus, *Holocentronotus mammillatus]FP66
    |    |    `--H. trigonarius (Lamarck 1816) [=Echinus trigonarius, *Acrocladia trigonaria]FP66
    |    |--Echinostrephus Agassiz 1863 [incl. Perinatus Agassiz 1872 (n. n.), Raphidechinus Lambert & Thiéry 1914]FP66
    |    |    |--*E. aciculatus Agassiz 1863FP66
    |    |    `--E. molaris (de Blainville 1825)BM09 [=Echinus molarisFP66, *Raphidechinus molarisFP66]
    |    |--Heliocidaris Agassiz & Desor 1846 [incl. Toxocidaris Agassiz 1863]FP66
    |    |    |--*H. tuberculata (Lamarck 1816) [=Echinus tuberculatus]FP66
    |    |    |--H. erythrogramma (Valenciennes 1846)FP66 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    `--‘Toxocidaris’ gibbosusD05
    |    `--Echinometra Gray 1825 (see below for synonymy)FP66
    |         |--*E. lucunter (Linnaeus 1758) [=Echinus lucunter]FP66
    |         |--E. mathaei (de Blainville 1825)BM09 [incl. E. miocenica de Loriol 1902SG93]
    |         |--‘Echinus’ oblonga de Blainville 1825 [=*Mortensenia oblonga]FP66
    |         |--E. prisca Cotteau 1875 [=*Plagiechinus priscus]FP66
    |         `--E. vanbrunti Agassiz 1863 [incl. *Ellipsechinus macrostomus Lutken 1864]FP66
    `--Toxopneustidae [Parasaleniidae, Parasaleninae]SG93
         |--Pseudocentrotus Mortensen 1903FP66
         |    `--*P. depressus (Agassiz 1863) [=Toxocidaris depressa]FP66
         |--Cyrtechinus Mortensen 1942FP66
         |    `--*C. verruculatus (Lutken 1864) [=Psammechinus verruculatus]FP66
         |--Goniopneustes Duncan 1889FP66
         |    `--*G. pentagonus (Agassiz 1872) [=Amblypneustes pentagonus]FP66
         |--Gymnechinus Mortensen 1903FP66
         |    `--*G. robillardi (de Loriol 1883) [=Echinus robillardi]FP66
         |--Scoliechinus Arnold & Clark 1927FP66
         |    `--*S. axiologus Arnold & Clark 1927FP66
         |--Diplosalenia Mortensen 1942FP66
         |    `--*D. gosseleti (Cotteau 1894) [=Parasalenia gosseleti]FP66
         |--Nudechinus Clark 1912 [incl. Taxophyma Lambert 1899]FP66
         |    |--*N. scotiopremnus Clark 1912FP66
         |    `--N. lyonsi (Gregory 1898) [=Psammechinus lyonsi, *Taxophyma lyonsi]FP66
         |--Toxopneustes Agassiz 1841 [=Boletia Desor 1846; incl. Hemiechinus Girard in Agassiz 1872]FP66
         |    |--*T. pileolus (Lamarck 1816) [=Echinus pileolus, *Boletia pileolus]FP66
         |    `--T. roseusFP66
         |--Pseudoboletia Troschel 1869FP66
         |    |--*P. stenostoma Troschel 1869FP66
         |    `--P. indiana (Michelin 1862)MG-H11
         |--Oligophyma Pomel 1869FP66
         |    |--*O. oranense Pomel 1869FP66
         |    `--O. cellenseFP66
         |--Schizechinus Pomel 1869 [incl. Toxophyma Lambert & Thiéry 1925]FP66
         |    |--*S. tuberculatus (Pomel 1887) [=Anapesus tuberculatus]FP66
         |    `--S. ducieiFP66
         |--Parasalenia Agassiz 1863 [=Cladosalenia Agassiz 1872]FP66
         |    |--*P. gratiosa Agassiz 1863 [=*Cladosalenia gratiosa]FP66
         |    `--P. poehli Pfeffer 1887BM09
         |--Lytechinus Agassiz 1863 [=Psilechinus Lutken 1864]FP66
         |    |--*L. variegatus (Lamarck 1816)FP66 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--L. anamesusBK77
         |    `--L. floralanus (Cooke 1941)SG93
         |--Sphaerechinus Desor 1856B01
         |    |--*S. granularis (Lamarck 1816) [=Echinus granularis]FP66
         |    |--S. esculentusH04
         |    `--S. lividusD56
         `--Tripneustes Agassiz 1841 [incl. Heliechinus Girard 1850, Hipponoe Gray 1840 (n. n.)]FP66
              |--*T. ventricosus (Lamarck 1816) [=Echinus ventricosus; incl. *Heliechinus gouldii Girard 1850]FP66
              |--T. esculentusW79
              `--T. gratilla (Linnaeus 1758)BM09

Echinometra Gray 1825 [incl. Ellipsechinus Lutken 1864, Ellipsocidaris Pomel 1869 (n. n.), Mortensenia Döderlein 1906, Plagiechinus Pomel 1883]FP66

Heliocidaris erythrogramma (Valenciennes 1846)FP66 [=Echinus erythrogrammusFP66, Toxocidaris erythrogrammusH15; incl. Toxopneustes delalandi Agassiz & Desor 1846FP66, *Toxocidaris delalandiFP66]

*Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck 1816)FP66 [=Echinus variegatusFP66, *Psilechinus variegatusFP66, Toxopneustes variegataBK77]

*Pachycentrotus australiae (Agassiz 1872) [=Sphaerechinus australiae, *Cryptopora australiae, *Pachechinus australiae]FP66

*Psammechinus miliaris (Müller 1771)FP66 [=Echinus miliarisFP66, Parechinus miliarisBK77; incl. E. virens Düben in Koren 1844D05]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AB01] Aronson, R. B., & D. B. Blake. 2001. Global climate change and the origin of modern benthic communities in Antarctica. American Zoologist 41: 27–39.

[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1–159.

[B01] Boczarowski, A. 2001. Isolated sclerites of Devonian non-pelmatozoan echinoderms. Palaeontologia Polonica 59: 1–219.

[BM09] Bryce, C., & L. Marsh. 2009. Echinodermata (Asteroidea, Echinoidea and Holothuroidea) of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 209–220.

[D56] Dawes, B. 1956. The Trematoda with special reference to British and other European forms. University Press: Cambridge.

[D05] Döderlein, L. 1905. Arktische Seeigel. In: Römer, F., & F. Schaudinn (eds) Fauna Arctica. Eine Zusammenstellun der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonder Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pp. 373–394. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[FP66] Fell, H. B., & D. L. Pawson. 1966. Echinacea. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 2 pp. U367–U440. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[H15] Hedley, C. 1915. Presidential address. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 49 (1): 1–77, pls 1–7.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[W79] Warner, G. F. 1979. Aggregation in echinoderms. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 375–396. Academic Press: London.

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