Echinochasmus perfoliatus, from here.

Belongs within: Echinostomatoidea.
Contains: Echinostoma.

The Echinostomatidae are spinous flukes found in the intestines of birds and mammals (Dawes 1956).

Characters (from Dawes 1956): Elongate, spinous, muscular distomes of variable size, having closely approximated suckers, of which the ventral may be especially powerful, and a fleshy anterior head collar bearing a single or double coronet of stout ‘head’ or ‘collar’ spines. Cirrus pouch generally present, sometimes extending back behind ventral sucker. Gonads with testes ovoid, sometimes slightly lobed, directly or diagonally one behind the other in posterior region. Ovary generally in front of testes, median or slightly on right of median plane. Vitellaria well developed, follicles mostly in posterior region, lateral, but sometimes merging in median plane. Uterus much folded between ovary and ventral sucker. Eggs large (0.065–0.12 mm long), thin-shelled. Excretory system with vesicle Y-shaped, provided with ramifying branches. Cercariae of echinostome type, entering second snail or fish or amphibian to encyst.

| |--AporchisD56
| |--Acanthoparyphium Dietz 1909D56
| |--Chloeophora Dietz 1909D56
| |--Pelmatostomum Dietz 1909D56
| `--Himasthla Dietz 1909D56
| |--H. elongata (Mehlis 1831) [=Distoma elongatum]D56
| |--H. leptosoma (Creplin 1829) (see below for synonymy)D56
| |--H. quissetensis (Miller & Northrup 1926)D56
| `--H. rhigedanaLGJ03
| |--HeterechinostomumD56
| |--Stephanoprora Odhner 1902 [incl. Mesorchis Dietz 1909, Monilifer Dietz 1909 non Fritsch 1906]D56
| | |--S. denticulata (Rudolphi 1802) (see below for synonymy)D56
| | |--S. pendula (Looss 1899) [=Echinostoma pendulum, Mesorchis pendulus]D56
| | `--S. spinosa Odhner 1910 [incl. Monilifer spinulosus Dietz 1909 non Rudolphi 1909]D56
| `--Echinochasmus Dietz 1909 [incl. Episthmium Lühe 1909]D56
| |--E. amphibolus Kotlan 1922D56
| |--E. beleocephalus (Linstow 1873)D56
| |--E. botauri Baer 1923D56
| |--E. bursicola (Creplin 1837)D56
| |--E. coaxatus Dietz 1909D56
| |--E. dietzevi Issaitschikow 1927D56
| |--E. liliputanus (Looss 1896)D56
| |--E. oligacanthus Dietz 1910D56
| `--E. perfoliatus (Rátz 1908) [=Echinostoma perfoliatum; incl. Echinostoma gregale Railliet & Henry 1909]D56
| i. s.: Echinoparyphium Dietz 1910D56
| |--E. aconiatum Dietz 1909D56
| |--E. agnatum Dietz 1909D56
| |--E. baculus (Diesing 1850)D56
| |--E. clerci Skrjabin 1915D56
| |--E. flexum McCoy 1928D56
| |--E. mordwilkoi Skrjabin 1915D56
| |--E. paraulum (Dietz 1909) [=Echinostoma paraulum; incl. Echinostoma columbae Zunker 1925]D56
| |--E. politum Skrjabin 1915D56
| `--E. recurvatum (Linstow 1873) [=Distoma recurvatum, Echinostoma recurvatum]D56
| Patagifer Dietz 1909D56
| `--P. bilobus (Rudolphi 1819)D56
| Nephrostomum Dietz 1909D56
| `--N. ramosum (Sonsino 1895)D56
`--+--Euparyphium Dietz 1909OC03, D56 [incl. Isthmiophora Lühe 1909D56]
| |--E. ilocanum (Garrison 1908)D56
| |--E. jassyense Léon & Ciurea 1922D56
| |--E. melis (Schrank 1788) (see below for synonymy)D56
| |--E. murinum Tubangui 1931D56
| `--E. suinum Ciurea 1921D56
`--Fasciolidae [Fasciolinae, Fasciolopsidae]D56
|--Fasciolopsis Looss 1899D56
| `--F. buski (Lankester 1857) (see below for synonymy)D56
|--Fascioloides Ward 1917D56
| `--F. magna (Bassi 1875) (see below for synonymy)D56
`--Fasciola Linnaeus 1758OC03, D56
|--F. gigantica Cobbold 1856 (see below for synonymy)D56
|--F. hepatica Linnaeus 1758D56 (see below for synonymy)
`--F. intestinalis Linnaeus 1758L58

Echinostomatidae incertae sedis:
Hypoderaeum Dietz 1909D56
`--H. conoideum (Bloch 1782) (see below for synonymy)D56
Pegosomum Rátz 1903D56
|--P. saginatum (Rátz 1898) [=Distoma saginatum]D56
`--P. spiniferum Rátz 1903D56
Parorchis Nicoll 1907 [incl. Proctobium Travassos 1918, Zeugorchis Nicoll 1906]D56
|--P. acanthus (Nicoll 1906) [=Zeugorchis acanthus; incl. P. avitus Linton 1914]D56
|--P. asiaticus Strom 1928D56
|--‘Proctobium’ gedoelsti Skrjabin 1924D56
`--P. snipis Lal 1936D56
Paryphostomum Dietz 1909D56
`--P. radiatum (Dujardin 1845) [=Distoma radiatum]D56
Parechinostomum Dietz 1909D56
`--P. cinctum (Rudolphi 1802) (see below for synonymy)D56
Petasiger Dietz 1909D56
`--P. exaeretus Dietz 1909D56
Chaunocephalus Dietz 1909D56
`--C. ferox (Rudolphi 1795) [=Fasciola ferox, Echinostoma ferox]D56
Echinostephilla Lebour 1909D56
`--E. virgula Lebour 1909D56
Sodalis Kowalewsky 1902 [incl. Scapanosoma Lühe 1909]D56
`--S. spatulatus (Rudolphi 1819) [=Distoma spatulatum, Echinostoma spatulatum, Scapanosoma spatulatum]D56

Euparyphium melis (Schrank 1788) [=Fasciola melis, Echinostoma mehlis, Isthmiopora melis; incl. Fasciola armata Rudolphi 1793, Distoma armatum, F. putorii Gmelin 1790, Planaria teres duplici poro Goeze 1782, F. trigonocephala Rudolphi 1802, Distoma trigonocephalum, Echinostoma trigonocephalum]D56

Fasciola gigantica Cobbold 1856 [incl. F. hepatica var. aegyptiaca Looss 1896, F. hepatica var. angusta Railliet 1895, Distomum giganteum Diesing 1858, Cladocoelium giganteum]D56

Fasciola hepatica Linnaeus 1758D56 [=Distoma hepaticumD56, Cladocoelium hepaticumD56, Distomum hepaticumO05; incl. D. caviae Sonsino 1890D56, Planaria latiuscula Goeze 1782D56]

Fascioloides magna (Bassi 1875) [=Distoma magnum, Fasciola magna; incl. F. carnosa Hassall 1891, Distoma grande Perroncito 1882 non Rudolphi 1819, D. texanicum Francis 1891]D56

Fasciolopsis buski (Lankester 1857) [=Distomum buski, Opisthorchis buski; incl. D. crassum Busk 1859, Fasciolopsis fuelleborni Rodenwaldt 1909, F. goddardi Ward 1910, Distomum rathouisi Poirier 1887, F. rathouisi, F. spinifera Brown 1917]D56

Himasthla leptosoma (Creplin 1829) [=Distoma leptosomum, Echinostoma leptosomum; incl. D. militare Rudolphi 1809, Himasthla militaris, Echinostoma secundum Nicoll 1906]D56

Hypoderaeum conoideum (Bloch 1782) [=Cucullanus conoideus, Echinostoma conoideum; incl. Psilochasmus lecithosus Otte 1926]D56

Parechinostomum cinctum (Rudolphi 1802) [=Fasciola cincta, Distoma cinctum, Echinostoma cinctum; incl. D. tringae helveticae Rudolphi 1819]D56

Stephanoprora denticulata (Rudolphi 1802) [=Fasciola denticulata, Distoma denticulatum, Echinostoma denticulatum, Mesorchis denticulatus; incl. M. polycestus Dietz 1909, Distoma pseudechinatum Olsson 1876]D56

*Type species of generic name indicated


[D56] Dawes, B. 1956. The Trematoda with special reference to British and other European forms. University Press: Cambridge.

[LGJ03] Lee, S. E., R. D. Gates & D. K. Jacobs. 2003. Gene fishing: the use of a simple protocol to isolate multiple homeodomain classes from diverse invertebrate taxa. Journal of Molecular Evolution 56: 509–516.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[O05] Odhner, T. 1905. Die Trematoden des arktischen Gebietes. In: Römer, F., & F. Schaudinn (eds) Fauna Arctica. Eine Zusammenstellun der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonder Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pp. 289–372. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[OC03] Olson, P. D., T. H. Cribb, V. V. Tkach, R. A. Bray & D. T. J. Littlewood. 2003. Phylogeny and classification of the Digenea (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda). International Journal for Parasitology 33: 733–755.

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