Echinus

Common sea urchin Echinus esculentus, copyright Gordon Milligan.

Belongs within: Echinoida.

Echinus is a genus of sea urchins known from the Pliocene to the present (Fell & Pawson 1966).

Characters (from Fell & Pawson 1966): Test widest at circular ambitus; ambulacral plates trigeminate, with primary tubercle on every alternate (or every third) ambulacral plate. Buccal membrane containing scattered plates. Secondary radioles only slightly shorter than primary radioles, not very numerous or dense, very sparse in some forms; adradial zygopores not markedly separated from others by vertical series of enlarged secondary tubercles. Apical system dicyclic.

<==Echinus Linnaeus 1758FP66
    |--*E. esculentus Linnaeus 1758FP66 [incl. E. sphaera Müller 1776D05]
    |--E. acutus Lamarck 1816D05 (see below for synonymy)
    |--E. affinis Mortensen 1903D05
    |--E. alexandri Danielssen in Koren 1883D05
    |--E. algirus Pomel 1885SG93
    |--E. atlanticusD05
    |--E. brevispinosus Risso 1826R26
    |--E. corona Risso 1826R26
    |--E. diadema Linnaeus 1758L58
    |--E. gilchristi [incl. E. hirsutus]D05
    |--E. gratilla Linnaeus 1758L58
    |--E. lacunosus Linnaeus 1758L58
    |--E. lamarckiiFP66
    |--E. lucidusD05
    |--E. meloBK77
    |--E. purpureusR26
    |--E. sardicusR26
    |--E. saxatilis Linnaeus 1758L58
    |--E. spatagus Linnaeus 1758L58
    `--E. woodsiiH86

Echinus acutus Lamarck 1816D05 [=E. rarispinusBK77; incl. E. flemingi Forbes 1841D05, E. microstoma Thomson 1874D05, E. norvegicus Düben in Koren 1846D05, E. acutus norvegicusD66]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1–159.

[D05] Döderlein, L. 1905. Arktische Seeigel. In: Römer, F., & F. Schaudinn (eds) Fauna Arctica. Eine Zusammenstellun der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonder Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pp. 373–394. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[D66] Durham, J. W. 1966. Echinoids—ecology and paleoecology. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 1 pp. U257–U265. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[FP66] Fell, H. B., & D. L. Pawson. 1966. Echinacea. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 2 pp. U367–U440. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[H86] Hutton, F. W. 1886. Notes on some Australian Tertiary fossils. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 481–482.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[SG93] Simms, M. J., A. S. Gale, P. Gilliland, E. P. F. Rose & G. D. Sevastopulo. 1993. Echinodermata. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 491–528. Chapman & Hall: London.

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