Gnamptogenys binghamii, copyright Kalesh Sadasivan.

Belongs within: Formicidae.
Contains: Rhytidoponera.

The name Ectatommini has been used for a cosmopolitan group of generalist ants, the ‘ectaheteromorphs’. Previously included in the Ponerinae, they have been reclassified as two separate subfamilies Heteroponerinae and Ectatomminae. However, a clade uniting these two subfamilies has been supported by molecular analysis (Brady et al. 2006). The Ectatomminae are distinguished by the morphology of the metapleural gland orifice, which is directed upwards by a ventral flange of cuticle. The Heteroponerinae differ from members of the Ponerinae in that the frontal lobes covering the antennal sockets are not pinched in posteriorly (Heterick 2009).

    |    |--Acanthoponera panamensisBS06
    |    |--AulacoponeH09
    |    `--Heteroponera Mayr 1887 [incl. Paranomopone Wheeler 1915]TB85
    |         |--*H. carinifrons Mayr 1887TB85
    |         |--H. imbellis (Emery 1895) (see below for synonymy)TB85
    |         |--H. leae (Wheeler 1923) [=Acanthoponera (Anacanthoponera) leae]TB85
    |         |--H. panamensisBS06
    |         `--H. relicta (Wheeler 1915) [=*Paranomopone relicta]TB85
         |  `--EctatommaBS06
         |       |--*E. tuberculatumB03
         |       `--E. opaciventreBS06
         `--+--Typhlomyrmex rogenhoferiBS06
            `--Gnamptogenys Roger 1863BS06, TB85 (see below for synonymy)
                 |--*G. tornata (Roger 1861) [=Ponera tornata]TB85
                 |--G. bicolor (Emery 1889)Z01 (see below for synonymy)
                 |--G. binghamii (Forel 1900)N-ZLI11, B03 [=Ectatomma (Stictoponera) binghamiB03]
                 |--G. biroi (Emery 1902) [=Stictoponera biroi]TB85
                 |--G. coccina Zhou 2001Z01
                 |--‘Ectatomma (Stictoponera) costatum Emery 1889B03
                 |--‘Ponera’ coxalis Roger 1860 [=Ectatomma (*Stictoponera) coxale]B03
                 |--G. cribrataN-ZLI11
                 |--G. levinates Baroni Urbani 1980P92
                 |--G. menadensisN-ZLI11 [=Ectatomma (Stictoponera) menadenseE89]
                 |--G. modiglianiiN-ZLI11
                 |--G. moelleriMO02
                 |--‘Ectatomma’ obscurum Emery 1869 [=Holcoponera obscura]TB85
                 |--G. panda (Brown 1948) [=Stictoponera panda]Z01
                 |--G. pristinaP92
                 |--G. sinensis Wu & Xiao 1987Z01
                 `--G. striatulaBS06

Gnamptogenys Roger 1863BS06, TB85 [incl. Alfaria Emery 1896Z01, Barbourella Wheeler 1930Z01, Commateta Santschi 1929Z01, Emeryella Forel 1901Z01, Holcoponera Mayr 1887Z01, Mictoponera Forel 1901Z01, Parectatomma Emery 1911Z01, Poneracantha Emery 1897Z01, Rhopalopone Emery 1897Z01, Spaniopone Wheeler & Mann 1914Z01, Stictoponera Mayr 1887Z01, Tammoteca Santschi 1929Z01, Wheeleripone Mann 1919Z01]

Gnamptogenys bicolor (Emery 1889)Z01 [=Ectatomma (Stictoponera) bicolorB03; incl. E. bicolor var. minor Forel 1900Z01]

Heteroponera imbellis (Emery 1895) [=Acanthoponera imbellis; incl. Ectatomma (Acanthoponera) imbellis hilare Forel 1895, A. nigra Clark 1930, A. occidentalis Clark 1926, A. (Anacanthoponera) imbellis scabra Wheeler 1923]TB85

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera vol. 2. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[BS06] Brady, S. G., T. R. Schultz, B. L. Fisher & P. S. Ward. 2006. Evaluating alternative hypotheses for the early evolution and diversification of ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (48): 18172–18177.

[E89] Emery, C. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XX.—Formiche di Birmania e del Tenasserim raccolte da Leonardo Fea (1885–87). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 485–520.

[H09] Heterick, B. E. 2009. A guide to the ants of south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 76: 1–206.

[MO02] Machado, G., & P. S. Oliveira. 2002. Maternal care in the Neotropical harvestman Bourguyia albiornata (Arachnida: Opiliones): oviposition site selection and egg protection. Behaviour 139: 1509–1524.

[N-ZLI11] Nur-Zati A. M., G. T. Lim & A. B. Idris. 2011. Checklist of ants of selected hill dipterocarp forests of peninsular Malaysia. Serangga 16 (1): 91–105.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[TB85] Taylor, R. W., & D. R. Brown. 1985. Formicoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 1–149. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[WB03] Ward, P. S., & S. G. Brady. 2003. Phylogeny and biogeography of the ant subfamily Myrmeciinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Invertebrate Systematics 17: 361–386.

[Z01] Zhou, S. 2001. Ants of Guangxi. Guangxi Normal University Press: Guilin (China).

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