Elaeocarpaceae

Blueberry ash Elaeocarpus reticulatus, copyright David Lochlin.

Belongs within: Oxalidales.

The Elaeocarpaceae are a group of shrubs and trees found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world except in Africa (Harden 1990).

Characters (from Harden 1990): Trees or shrubs. Leaves mostly alternate or sometimes opposite, simple or 1-foliolate, commonly clustered at the end of branches; margins usually regularly toothed, sometimes entire or almost so; stipules small, frequently shed early. Inflorescence axillary, a raceme, panicle or dichasial cyme, or flowers solitary. Flowers actinomorphic, usually bisexual. Sepals mostly 4 or 5, distinct or fused at base, often valvate. Petals 4 or 5, free or rarely united, often deeply divided or petals absent. Stamens numerous, usually free, borne on a more or less enlarged disc or receptacle; anther 2-locular, usually much longer than the filament, dehiscing by apical pores, or apical or subapical slits; connective often elongated. Carpels 2–many, united, ovary superior. Fruit a capsule, drupe or berry.

<==Elaeocarpaceae [Elaeocarpineae]
|–Crinodendron MC94
|–Dubouzetia MC94
|–Peripentadenia MC94
|–Sloaneaecarpum eocenicum Râsky 1962 CBH93
|–Echinocarpus CBH93
|–Sloanea H90
|    |–S. australis H90
|    `–S. woolsii WP99
|–Aristotelia L’Hér. 1786 A61
|    |  i. s.: A. maqui D03
|    |–+–A. australasica LC95
|    |  `–A. peduncularis LC95
|    `–+–A. chilensis LC95
|       `–+–A. × colensoi Hook. f. 1864 [A. fruticosa × A. serrata; incl. A. × fruserrata Allan 1927] A61
|          |–A. fruticosa Hooker 1852 LC95, A61 (see below for synonymy)
|          `–A. serrata (Forster & Forster) Oliver 1921 LC95, A61 (see below for synonymy)
|–Tetratheca BS05
|    |–T. affinis BS05
|    |–T. aphylla BS05
|    |–T. chapmanii BS05
|    |–T. confertifolia RL05
|    |–T. efoliata BS05
|    |–T. fordiana Butcher in Butcher & Sage 2005 BS05
|    |–T. harperi BS05
|    |–T. hirsuta GK00
|    |–T. hispidissima GK00
|    |–T. nuda GK00
|    |–T. paynterae BS05
|    |–T. pilosa H87
|    |–T. retrorsa BS05
|    |–T. setigera GK00
|    `–T. virgata OS04
|–Aceratium WB-P93
|    |–A. doggrellii WB-P93
|    `–A. ferrugineum WO95b
`–Elaeocarpus Linnaeus 1753 A61
|–E. angustifolius WM09
|–E. bauerlenii [incl. E. longifolius (preoc.)] MB08
|–E. costatus P82
|–E. cyaneus R70
|–E. decipiens MH98
|–E. dentatus (Forster & Forster) Vahl 1794 A61 (see below for synonymy)
|    |–E. d. var. dentatus A61
|    `–E. d. var. obovatus Cheesem. 1907 A61
|–E. elliffii WP99
|–E. eumundii H90
|–E. ferruginiflorus WO95b
|–E. foveolatus WO95b
|–E. grandis NC91
|–E. holopetalus H90
|–E. hookerianus Raoul 1846 A61
|–E. kirtonii H90
|–E. lancaefolius D07
|–E. largiflorens WB-P93
|–E. muelleri Ettingshausen 1886 F71
|–E. obovatus non E. dentatus var. obovatus Cheesem. 1907 H90
|–E. reticulatus W01
|–E. sericopetalus WO95a
|–E. sikkimensis D07
|–E. stipularils CK06
`–E. williamsianus H90

Aristotelia fruticosa Hooker 1852 LC95, A61 [incl. Myrsine brachyclada Colenso 1839 A61, A. fruticosa var. erecta Hooker 1852 A61, A. erecta Buchanan 1871 A61, A. fruticosa var. microphylla Hooker 1852 A61, A. fruticosa var. prostrata Hooker 1852 A61, A. fruticosa var. ridigula Simpson & Thomson 1947 A61, A. fruticosa var. suberecta Hooker 1852 A61]

Aristotelia serrata (Forster & Forster) Oliver 1921 LC95, A61 [=Dicera serrata Forster & Forster 1776 A61; incl. Friesia racemosa Cunn. 1840 A61, Aristotelia racemosa Hook. f. 1852 A61]

Elaeocarpus dentatus (Forster & Forster) Vahl 1794 A61 [=Dicera dentata Forster & Forster 1776 A61, Eriostemon dentatus C06; incl. Elaeocarpus cunninghamii Raoul 1846 A61, El. hinau Cunn. 1840 A61]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BS05] Butcher, R., & L. W. Sage. 2005. Tetratheca fordiana (Elaeocarpaceae), a new species from the Pilbara of Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (2): 73–76.

[CK06] Campbell, P., & T. H. Kunz. 2006. Cynopterus horsfieldii. Mammalian Species 802: 1–5.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 79–88.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[H90] Harden, G. J. (ed.) 1990. Flora of New South Wales vol. 1. New South Wales University Press.

[H87] Haviland, E. 1887. Flowering seasons of Australian plants. No. II. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1103–1104.

[LC95] Linder, H. P., & M. D. Crisp. 1995. Nothofagus and Pacific biogeography. Cladistics 11: 5–32.

[MB08] Maiden, J. H., & E. Betche. 1908. Notes from the Botanic Gardens, Sydney. No. 13. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 304–319.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

[MC94] Morrone, J. J., & J. M. Carpenter. 1994. In search of a method for cladistic biogeography: an empirical comparison of component analysis, Brooks parsimony analysis, and three-area statements. Cladistics 10: 99–153.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[P82] Pickard, J. 1982. Catastrophic disturbance and vegetation on Little Slope, Lord Howe Island. Australian Journal of Ecology 7: 161–170.

[RL05] Rafferty, C., & B. B. Lamont. 2005. Selective feeding by macropods on vegetation regenerating following fire. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 155–165.

[R70] Riek, E. F. 1970. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 867–959. Melbourne University Press.

[W01] Walter, D. E. 2001. Achilles and the mite: Zeno’s paradox and rainforest mite diversity. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 113–120. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[WB-P93] Walter, D. E., & V. M. Behan-Pelletier. 1993. Systematics and ecology of Adhaesozetes polyphyllos sp.nov. (Acari: Oribatida: Licneremaeoidea), a leaf-inhabiting mite from Australian rainforests. Canadian Journal of Zoology 71: 1024–1040.

[WO95a] Walter, D. E., & D. J. O’Dowd. 1995a. Beneath biodiversity: factors influencing the diversity and abundance of canopy mites. Selbyana 16 (1): 12–20.

[WO95b] Walter, D. E., & D. J. O’Dowd. 1995b. Life on the forest phylloplane: hairs, little houses, and myriad mites. In: M. D. Lowman, & N. M. Nadkarni (eds) Forest Canopies pp. 325–351. Academic Press, Inc.

[WP99] Walter, D. E., & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[WM09] Wang, H., M. J. Moore, P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, S. F. Brockington, R. Alexandre, C. C. Davis, M. Latvis, S. R. Manchester & D. E. Soltis. 2009. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106 (10): 3853–3858.

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