Sclerite of Palaeocaudina regia, from Boczarowski (2001). Scale bar = 200 µm.

Belongs within: Holothuroidea.

The Elasipodida are a group of mostly deep-sea holothuroids with a bilaterally symmetrical body pattern in which the dorsal tube feet have become modified into elongate sensory processes (Pawson 1966). Members of this group include some of the atypical species of sea cucumber, such as the ‘sea pigs’ of the Elpidiidae or the pelagic Pelagothuria natatrix.

    |  i. s.: Auricularia nudibranchiataH04
    |         Oneirophantites tarragonensis Cherbonnier 1978SG93
    |         PelagothuriaFE66 [PelagothuriidaeP66]
    |           `--P. natatrixFE66
    |    |--ElpidiidaeSG93
    |    |    |--Scotonassa Théel 1882B01
    |    |    |--Peniagone Théel 1882B01
    |    |    |    `--P. diaphana Théel 1882MG-H11
    |    |    `--ElpidiaBK77
    |    |         |--E. birsteini Belyaev 1971M00
    |    |         |--E. glacialisBK77
    |    |         |--E. hanseni Belyaev 1971M00
    |    |         `--E. rigidaH04
    |    `--PsychropotidaeB01
    |         |--Benthodytes Théel 1882B01
    |         |--Nectothuria Belyaev & Vinogradov 1969B01
    |         |--Euphronides Théel 1882B01
    |         |    `--E. depressaO01
    |         `--Psychropotes Théel 1882B01
    |              |--P. longicaudaGD00
    |              `--P. scotiae (Vaney 1908)B01
         |    |--Oneirophanta Théel 1882B01
         |    `--Deima atlanticumFE66
         `--Palaeocaudina Boczarowski 2001 [Palaeocaudinidae]B01
              |--P. regia Boczarowski 2001B01
              `--+--*P. hexagonaria (Martin 1952) [=Protocaudina hexagonaria]B01
                 |--P. hannai (Croneis 1932) [=Protocaudina hannai]B01
                 `--+--P. kansasensis (Hanna 1930) [=Protocaudina kansasensis]B01
                    `--+--P. acmaea (Matyja 1972) [=Protocaudina acmaea]B01
                       `--+--P. herrigi (Reich 1995) [=Protocaudina herrigi]B01
                               |--Bathygone Pawson 1965B01
                               |--Benthogone abstrusa (Sluiter 1901)MG-H11
                               |--Pannychia moseleyi Théel 1882MG-H11
                               |--Enypniastes eximia Théel 1882MG-H11
                               `--Laetmogone Théel 1882B01
                                    |--L. fimbriata (Sluiter 1901)MG-H11
                                    |--L. maculata (Théel 1879)MG-H11
                                    |--L. theeli Ludwig 1894MG-H11
                                    `--L. violacea Théel 1879MG-H11

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1–159.

[B01] Boczarowski, A. 2001. Isolated sclerites of Devonian non-pelmatozoan echinoderms. Palaeontologia Polonica 59: 1–219.

[FE66] Frizzell, D. L., & H. Exline. 1966. Holothuroidea—fossil record. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 2 pp. U646–U672. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[GD00] Giribet, G., D. L. Distel, M. Polz, W. Sterrer & W. C. Wheeler. 2000. Triploblastic relationships with emphasis on the acoelomates and the position of Gnathostomulida, Cycliophora, Plathelminthes, and Chaetognatha: a combined approach of 18S rDNA sequences and morphology. Systematic Biology 49: 539–562.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[M00] Mironov, A. N. 2000. New taxa of stalked crinoids from the suborder Bourgueticrinina (Echinodermata, Crinoidea). Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 79: 712–728.

[O01] Ohlin, A. 1901. On a new “bipolar” schizopod. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 371–374.

[P66] Pawson, D. L. 1966. Phylogeny and evolution of holothuroids. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 2 pp. U641–U646. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[SG93] Simms, M. J., A. S. Gale, P. Gilliland, E. P. F. Rose & G. D. Sevastopulo. 1993. Echinodermata. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 491–528. Chapman & Hall: London.

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