Elasmus

Elasmus polistis, from Maciel et al. (2023).

Belongs within: Eulophinae.

A new short-horned Elasmus
Published 16 October 2012

I can now officially claim not to be a one-trick pony: my first non-harvestman academic paper has just been published. The paper, “New records of Elasmus (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) species from Barrow Island, Western Australia”, written with my co-worker Nihara Gunawardene, is freely available from the Journal of Hymenoptera Research.

Female Elasmus curticornis Gunawardene & Taylor 2012, newly out today!

Elasmus is a particularly attractive genus of chalcid micro-wasps that can be immediately distinguished from most other chalcids by their massively enlarged hind coxae, which are shaped like discs, and their long wedge-shaped wings. The Elasmus species of Australia were reviewed by Riek (1967), but most of them were known only from a small number of localities, mostly on the eastern side of the continent. In the course of going through material collected on Barrow Island, Nihara and I identified several species of Elasmus that had not been previously recorded from north-west Australia, and our new paper is mostly a record of those range extensions. Also, as most of the species had never actually been illustrated before, we provided extensive colour specimen photographs.

Elasmus ero emma, from Gunawardene & Taylor (2012).

Among the specimens, though, were a couple that we couldn’t quite match up with any of the species in Riek’s paper. They jumped between a few different identifications, but none of them really worked. So we had to broaden our comparisons: a bit of a daunting prospect, may I note, because Elasmus has over 200 species worldwide and I wasn’t really keen on the idea of checking every single one of them to see whether they were the species we had on hand. As it turned out, I needn’t have worried: the unusually short antennae of this species eliminated all but a few options. And after striking out those options as well, we prepared a description of a new species: Elasmus curticornis Gunawardene & Taylor 2012.

Elasmus auratiscutellum, photographed by yours truly.

The species name means ‘short-horned’, in reference to the short antennae, and also in reference to one of the other similar species, E. brevicornis, which has an extensive distribution in Eurasia. I did spend a few days pondering whether our specimens might be slightly unusual examples of E. brevicornis: the most obvious difference between the two is that E. curticornis has a much more extensive area of orange on the gaster than has E. brevicornis. Eventually, we decided to go with declaring a new species, and at least none of the reviewers shot us down. I’m still keeping an eye out for more specimens to test our identification, but it doesn’t seem to be a very abundant species so far.

Systematics of Elasmus
<==Elasmus Westwood 1833 (see below for synonymy)VHK02
    |--*E. flabellatus (Fonsocolombe 1832) [=Eulophus flabellatus; incl. El. giraudi]YS10
    |--E. africanus Ferrier 1929VHK02
    |--E. alami Verma, Hayat & Kazmi 2002VHK02
    |--E. alarisBLZ15
    |--E. albicoxa Howard 1885GM79
    |--E. albizziaeVHK02
    |--E. albopictus Crawford 1910VHK02
    |--E. altaicus Yefremova & Strakhova 2010YS10
    |--E. anamalaianus Mani & Saraswat 1972MS72
    |--E. anticles Walker 1846 [incl. E. albomaculatus Gahan 1920]VHK02
    |--E. aquilaNS84
    |--E. arumburinga Girault 1920GT12
    |--E. ashmeadiVHK02
    |--E. aspidiscae Girault 1917GM79
    |--E. atroaeneus Girault 1930G30
    |--E. auratiscutellum Girault 1915G12
    |--E. bathyskiusBLZ15
    |--E. bellicaput Girault 1923 [incl. E. braconi Girault 1926]NS84
    |--E. bicolor (Fonsocolombe 1840) (see below for synonymy)YS10
    |--E. binocellatus Mani & Saraswat 1972MS72
    |--E. biroiYS10
    |--E. bistrigatus Graham 1995YS10
    |--E. borrowi Girault 1917GM79
    |--E. brevicornis Gahan 1922MS72
    |--E. broomensis Naumann & Sands 1984NS84
    |--E. burnsi Girault 1919GM79
    |--E. caligneusBLZ15
    |--E. cameroni Verma & Hayat 1986 [=*Cyclopleura fumipennis Cameron 1913 non E. fumipennis Thomson 1878]VHK02
    |--E. cavicolous Verma, Hayat & Kazmi 2002VHK02
    |--E. ceylonicus Ferrière 1929YS10
    |--E. ciopkaloiYS10
    |--E. claripennis (Cameron 1913) [=Cyclopleura claripennis; incl. E. colemani Mahdihassan 1923]VHK02
    |--E. concinnus Riek 1967GT12
    |--E. curticornis Gunawardene & Taylor 2012GT12
    |--E. cyaneus Girault 1912GT12
    |--E. cyanomontanus Mani & Saraswat 1972MS72
    |--E. cygnusVHK02
    |--E. daedalus Girault 1917G17
    |--E. dalhousieanus Mani & Saraswat 1972MS72
    |--E. deccanus Mani & Saraswat 1972MS72
    |--E. doddiVHK02
    |--E. ekaterinae Yefremova & Strakhova 2010YS10
    |--E. emeljanovi Yefremova & Strakhova 2010YS10
    |--E. ero Girault 1920GT12
    |    |--E. e. eroGT12
    |    `--E. e. emma (Girault 1940)GT12
    |--E. flavescens Verma, Hayat & Kazmi 2002VHK02
    |--E. flavipropleurum Girault 1940GT12
    |--E. flaviventris Howard 1894GM79
    |--E. flavocorpus Husain & Kudeshia 1984VHK02
    |--E. floridensis Girault 1916GM79
    |--E. formosusGT12
    |    |--E. f. formosusGT12
    |    `--E. f. nakomara Girault 1920GT12
    |--E. fulvicornis Verma, Hayat & Kazmi 2002VHK02
    |--E. funereus Riek 1967VHK02
    |--E. grimmi Girault 1920 [=Austelasmus grimmi]VHK02
    |--E. homonae Ferriere 1929VHK02
    |--E. hutsoni Ferriere 1929 [=Austelasmus hutsoni]VHK02
    |--E. hybleae Ferriere 1929VHK02
    |--E. indicoides Mani & Saraswat 1972MS72
    |--E. indicus Rohwer 1921MS72
    |--E. insolitidens Girault 1930G30
    |--E. johnstoni Ferriére 1929MS72
    |--E. khandalus Mani & Saraswat 1972MS72
    |--E. kodaianus Mani & Saraswat 1972MS72
    |--E. kollimalaianus Mani & Saraswat 1972MS72
    |--E. krishnagiriensis Mani & Saraswat 1972MS72
    |--E. kurandaensis Girault 1913GM79
    |--E. lamborniVHK02
    |--E. levifrons Howard 1894GM79
    |--E. lividus Girault 1913GT12
    |--E. longiclava Graham 1995YS10
    |--E. longicornis Verma, Hayat & Kazmi 2002VHK02
    |--E. longifasciativentrisVHK02
    |--E. longiventris Verma, Hayat & Kazmi 2002VHK02
    |--E. lutens Crawford 1914VHK02
    |--E. mahabaleswarensis Mani & Saraswat 1972MS72
    |--E. mahabalii Mani & Saraswat 1972MS72
    |--E. maritimus Yefremova & Strakhova 2010YS10
    |--E. marylandicus Girault 1915GM79
    |--E. meteori Ashmead 1898GM79
    |--E. mexicanus Girault 1915GM79
    |--E. missouriensis Girault 1917GM79
    |--E. mordax Girault 1917GM79
    |--E. munnarus Mani & Saraswat 1972MS72
    |--E. neoflavescensBLZ15
    |--E. neoflavocorpusBLZ15
    |--E. neofunereus Riek 1967GT12
    |--E. nephantidis Rohwer 1921YS10
    |--E. nigricorpus Husain & Kudeshia 1984VHK02
    |--E. nigricus Husain & Kudeshia 1984VHK02
    |--E. nigripes Howard 1885GM79 [incl. E. apanteli Gahan 1913G18, GM79, E. pullatus Howard 1885G18, GM79]
    |--E. nigritus Verma, Hayat & Kazmi 2002VHK02
    |--E. nikolskayae Myartseva & Dzhanokmen 1989YS10
    |--E. nowickii Ferrière 1947YS10
    |--E. noyesi Verma, Hayat & Kazmi 2002VHK02
    |--E. nudus (Nees 1834)YS10 [=*Aneure nudaVHK02; incl. E. albipennis Thomson 1878YS10]
    |--E. nympha Girault 1919GM79
    |--E. pavoVHK02
    |--E. philippinensis Ashmead 1904VHK02
    |--E. phthorimaeae Ferrière 1947BLZ15
    |--E. picturatusVHK02
    |--E. platyedrae Ferrière 1935 [incl. E. elongatus Ferrière 1947]YS10
    |--E. polistis Burks 1971YS10
    |--E. pulchellus Verma, Hayat & Kazmi 2002VHK02
    |--E. pulex Girault 1916GM79
    |--E. punctatus Howard 1894GM79
    |--E. punctulatus Verma, Hayat & Kazmi 2002VHK02
    |--E. punensis Mani & Saraswat 1972MS72
    |--E. queenslandicus Girault 1913VHK02
    |--E. quingilliensisVHK02
    |--E. rajasthanicus Verma, Hayat & Kazmi 2002VHK02
    |--E. ricinus Husain & Kudeshia 1984VHK02
    |--E. rufiventris Ferrière 1947 [incl. E. obesoceratis Trjapitzin 1979]YS10
    |--E. schmitti Ruschka 1920 [incl. E. invreae Masi 1935]YS10
    |--E. scutellofurvusBLZ15
    |--E. semiatripes Girault 1937G37
    |--E. setosiscutellatus Crawford 1910GM79
    |--E. silvarum Girault 1922G22
    |--E. smithii Howard 1894GM79
    |--E. splendidus Girault 1912GT12
    |--E. steffani Viggiani 1967YS10
    |--E. stellatusVHK02
    |--E. subauriceps Girault 1922G22
    |--E. sugonjaevi Yefremova & Strakhova 2009BLZ15
    |--E. tenebrosus Riek 1967GT12
    |--E. tischeriae Howard 1885GM79
    |--E. trifasciativentris [=*Austelasmus trifasciativentris]VHK02
    |--E. turkmenicus Yefremova & Strakhova 2010YS10
    |--E. unicolor (Rondani 1877)YS10 [=*Heptocondyla unicolorVHK02; incl. E. vibicellaeYS10]
    |--E. valparaianus Mani & Saraswat 1872MS72
    |--E. varius Howard 1885GM79
    |--E. viridiceps Thomson 1878YS10
    |--E. viridiscutellatus Verma, Hayat & Kazmi 2002VHK02
    |--E. voltairei Girault 1920GM79
    |--E. westwoodi Giraud 1856YS10
    |--E. zatonusBLZ15
    |--E. zehntneri Ferriere 1900VHK02
    `--E. zigzag Girault 1917G17

Elasmus Westwood 1833 [incl. Aneure Nees 1834, Austelasmus Riek 1967, Cyclopleura Cameron 1913, Heptocondyla Rondani 1877; Elasmidae, Elasminae, Elasmini]VHK02

Elasmus bicolor (Fonsocolombe 1840) [=Eulophus bicolor non Pteromalus bicolor Swederus 1795 (not preoc. if in dif. gen.)]YS10

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BLZ15] Bayegan, Z.-A., H. Lotfalizadeh & M.-R. Zargaran. 2015. Occurrence of eulophid wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea, Eulophidae) in rice fields of eastern Guilan, Iran. J. Crop Prot. 4 (2): 199–205.

[G17] Girault, A. A. 1917. Descriptiones hymenopterorum chalcidoidicarum variorum cum observationibus. V. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 116–131).

[G18] Girault, A. A. 1918. North American Hymenoptera Elasmidae. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 138–141).

[G22] Girault, A. A. 1922. The true remedy for head lice, dedication of a new animal to the quality of majesty and so forth. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 166).

[G30] Girault, A. A. 1930. New pests from Australia. IX. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 278–279).

[G37] Girault, A. A. 1937. New naturals, unorthodoxies and non-pollutions, viz. new hexapods. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 326–328).

[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1–400.

[GT12] Gunawardene, N. R., & C. K. Taylor. 2012. New records of Elasmus (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) species from Barrow Island, Western Australia. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 29: 21–35.

[MS72] Mani, M. S., & G. G. Saraswat. 1972. On some Elasmus Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea from India. Oriental Insects 6 (4): 459–506.

[NS84] Naumann, I. D., & D. P. A. Sands. 1984. Two Australian Elasmus spp. (Hymenoptera: Elasmidae), parasitoids of Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae): their taxonomy and biology. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 23: 25–32.

Riek, E. F. 1967. Australian Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea family Eulophidae, subfamily Elasminae. Australian Journal of Zoology 15: 145–199.

[VHK02] Verma, M., M. Hayat & S. I. Kazmi. 2002. The species of Elasmus from India (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae). Oriental Insects 36: 245–306.

[YS10] Yefremova, Z. A., & I. S. Strakhova. 2010. A review of the species of the genus Elasmus Westwood (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) from Russia and neighboring countries. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 89 (3): 634–661.

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