Eleutherengonides

Hoplocheylus sp., from Walter et al. (2009).
Belongs within: Prostigmata.
Contains: Raphignathoidea, Tetranychoidea, Cheyletoidea, Pterygosomatidae, Dolichocyboidea, Pygmephoroidea, Pyemotoidea, Tarsonemidae, Podapolipidae.

The Eleutherengonides are a group of mites in which the chelicerae have the fixed digit reduced or absent, with the movable digit hook-like or stylet;like and inserted apically or subapically on the closely contiguous or fused cheliceral bases. A palpal thumb-claw process is commonly present and the solenidia on leg tarsus I, if present, are erect (Walter et al. 2009).

<==Eleutherengonides [Eleutherengona, Eleutherengonina] DPD16
|–Raphignathina [Raphignathae] WL09
|    |–+–Raphignathoidea OW01
|    |  `–+–Tetranychoidea OW01
|    |     `–Cheyletoidea OW01
|    `–Pterygosomatidae OW01
`–Heterostigmata [Heterostigmae, Heterostigmatina, Tarsocheylina, Tarsonemida, Trachelostigmata] ZF11
|  i. s.: Nasutiacarus Sidorchuk & Lindquist in Sidorchuk, Perrichot & Lindquist 2016 (see below for synonymy) SPL16
|           `–*N. perplexus Sidorchuk & Lindquist in Sidorchuk, Perrichot & Lindquist 2016 SPL16
|–Tarsocheylidae [Tarsocheyloidea] L86
|    |–Tarsocheylus paradoxus WL09
|    `–Hoplocheylus Atyeo & Baker 1964 S76
|         |–H. atomarius NK94
|         |–H. discalis Atyeo & Baker 1964 S76
|         `–H. pickardi WL09
`–+–Heterocheylus Lombardini 1926 H98 [Heterocheyletinae, Heterocheylidae L86, Heterocheyloidea]
|    `–H. lombardinii Womersley 1960 H98
`–Tarsonemina L86
|–Dolichocyboidea L86
`–+–+–Pygmephoroidea L86
|  `–+–Pyemotoidea L86
|     `–Tarsonemoidea WL09
|          |–Tarsonemidae L86
|          `–Podapolipidae WL09
`–Trochometridioidea WL09
|–Trochometridium Cross 1965 [Trochometridiidae] L86
|    |–T. chinensis WL09
|    `–T. tribulatum WP99
`–Athyreacaridae WL09
|–Athyreacarus pleiotretus WL09
`–Bembidiacarus [Bembidiacaridae] WL09

Eleutherengonides incertae sedis:
Cloacaroidea ZF11
|–Epimyodex WL09 [Epimyodicidae ZF11, Epimyodicinae]
|    `–E. soricis WL09
`–Cloacaridae ZF11
|–Pneumophagus bubonis WP99
|–Caminacarus theodori WL09
|–Theodoracarus testudinis WL09
|–Cloacarus faini WL09
`–Emyduracarus Fain 1968 H98
`–E. australis Fain 1968 H98

Nasutiacarus Sidorchuk & Lindquist in Sidorchuk, Perrichot & Lindquist 2016 [Nasutiacaridae, Nastuiacaroidea] SPL16

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[DPD16] Dabert, M., H. Proctor & J. Dabert. 2016. Higher-level molecular phylogeny of the water mites (Acariformes: Prostigmata: Parasitengonina: Hydrachnidiae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 101: 75–90.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[L86] Lindquist, E. E. 1986. The world genera of Tarsonemidae (Acari: Heterostigmata): a morphological, phylogenetic, and systematic revision, with a reclassification of family-group taxa in the Heterostigmata. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada 118 (S136): 1–517.

[OW01] Otto, J. C., & K. J. Wilson. 2001. Assessment of the usefulness of ribosomal 18S and mitochondrial COI sequences in Prostigmata phylogeny. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 100–109. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[S76] Shiba, M. 1976. Taxonomic investigation on free-living Prostigmata from the Malay Peninsula. Nature and Life in Southeast Asia 7: 83–229.

[SPL16] Sidorchuk, E. A., V. Perrichot & E. E. Lindquist. 2016. A new fossil mite from French Cretaceous amber (Acari: Heterostigmata: Nasutiacaroidea superfam. nov.), testing evolutionary concepts within the Eleutherengona (Acariformes). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 14 (4): 297–317.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

[WP99] Walter, D. E., & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[ZF11] Zhang, Z.-Q., Q.-H. Fan, V. Pesic, H. Smit, A. V. Bochkov, A. A. Khaustov, A. Baker, A. Wohltmann, T. Wen, J. W. Amrine, P. Beron, J. Lin, G. Gabryś & R. Husband. 2011. Order Trombidiformes Reuter, 1909. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (ed.) Animal biodiversity: an outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa 3148: 129–138.

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