Lohora ophthalmicus, photographed by Antonio Guidici.

Belongs within: Satyrinae.

The Elymniini are a group of butterflies including the bushbrowns and palmflies. Elymnias, the palmflies, is an Indo-Australian genus of large, sexually dimorphic butterflies with the distal margins of the wings scalloped, whose larvae feed on palms of the genus Calamus (Braby 2000).

| i. s.: Bicyclus anynanaWWN03
| LasiommataWWN03
| |--L. dejaniraB66
| `--L. megeraWWN03
| ‘Papilio’ canthus Linné 1766 (see below for synonymy)B66
| Elymnias Hübner 1818B00
| `--E. agonas (Boisduval 1832)B00
| |--E. a. agonasB00
| `--E. a. australiana Fruhstorfer 1900B00
|--Nirvana Tsukada & Nishiyama 1979V-WF03
| `--N. hypnusV-WF03
|--Orsotriaena Wallengren 1858V-WF03, B00
| `--O. medus (Fabricius 1775)B00
| |--O. m. medusB00
| `--O. m. moira Waterhouse & Lyell 1914B00
|--Mycalesis Hübner 1818B00
| |--*M. francisca [=Papilio francisca]V-WF03
| |--M. drusia [incl. M. mineus]WM66
| |--M. evara Fruhstorfer 1906B00
| |--M. otreaWM66
| |--‘Papilio’ peribaea Fabricius 1793 [=Neonympha peribaea, Satyrus peribaea]B66
| |--M. perseus (Fabricius 1775)B00
| |--M. samba [incl. M. lalassis]WM66
| |--M. sirius (Fabricius 1775)B00
| `--M. terminus (Fabricius 1775)B00
`--Lohora Moore 1880 [=Lohara (l. c.); incl. Celebina Fruhstorfer 1899]V-WF03
|--L. (Lohora)V-WF03
| |--*L. (L.) dexamenus (Hewitson 1862) [=Mycalesis dexamenus]V-WF03
| |--L. (L.) anna Vane-Wright & Fermon 2003V-WF03
| |--L. (L.) dinon (Hewitson 1862) [=Mycalesis dinon, M. dexamenus dinon]V-WF03
| |--L. (L.) haasei (Röber 1887) [=Mycalesis haasei]V-WF03
| |--L. (L.) ophthalmicus (Westwood 1888) (see below for synonymy)V-WF03
| |--L. (L.) tilmara (Fruhstorfer 1906) [=Mycalesis tilmara]V-WF03
| |--L. (L.) transiens (Fruhstorfer 1908) (see below for synonymy)V-WF03
| `--L. (L.) unipapillata Fruhstorfer 1899 (see below for synonymy)V-WF03
|--L. (Physcon de Nicéville 1898) [=Phycona (l. c.)]V-WF03
| |--L. (*P.) pandaea (Hopffer 1874) [=Mycalesis pandaea, M. (Physcon) pandaea]V-WF03
| |--L. (P.) decipiens (Martin 1929) [=Mycalesis decipiens]V-WF03
| |--L. (P.) deianira (Hewitson 1862) [=Mycalesis deianira, M. dora Hewitson 1864]V-WF03
| |--L. (P.) deianirina (Fruhstorfer 1897) (see below for synonymy)V-WF03
| |--L. (P.) erna (Fruhstorfer 1899) [=Celebina erna, Mycalesis erna]V-WF03
| |--L. (P.) imitatrix (Martin 1929) [=Mycalesis imitatrix]V-WF03
| |--L. (P.) inga (Fruhstorfer 1899) [=*Celebina inga, Mycalesis inga]V-WF03
| `--L. (P.) umbrosa Roos 1997V-WF03
`--L. (Pseudomycalesis Tsukada & Nishiyama 1979)V-WF03
`--L. (*P.) tanuki (Tsukada & Nishiyama 1979) [=*Pseudomycalesis tanuki]V-WF03

Lohora (Lohora) ophthalmicus (Westwood 1888) [=Messaras ophthalmicus, Mycalesis ophthalmica, My. ophthalmicus]V-WF03

Lohora (Lohora) transiens (Fruhstorfer 1908) [=Mycalesis dexamenus transiens; incl. M. transiens f. obscurata Martin 1929]V-WF03

Lohora (Lohora) unipapillata Fruhstorfer 1899 [=Lohara (l. c.) dinon unipapillata, Mycalesis haasei unipapillata]V-WF03

Lohora (Physcon) deianirina (Fruhstorfer 1897) [=Mycalesis deianirina, Celebina pandaea deianirina, Lohora pandaea deianirina, Mycalesis deianira deianirina]V-WF03

‘Papilio’ canthus Linné 1766 [=Neonympha canthus, Satyrus canthus, S. cantheus; incl. Papilio eurydice Linn. 1789]B66

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B66] Butler, A. G. 1866. A monograph of the genus Euptychia, a numerous race of butterflies belonging to the family Satyridae; with descriptions of sixty species new to science, and notes on their affinities &c. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 458–504.

[V-WF03] Vane-Wright, R. I., & H. Fermon. 2003. Taxonomy and identification of Lohora Moore (Lepidoptera: Satyrinae), the Sulawesi bush browns. Invertebrate Systematics 17: 129–141.

[WWN03] Wahlberg, N., E. Weingartner & S. Nylin. 2003. Towards a better understanding of the higher systematics of Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 28: 473–484.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355–365.

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