Emberizidae

 Cirl bunting Emberiza cirlus, copyright Paco Gómez.

Belongs within: Emberizoidea.
Contains: Emberiza capensis, Emberiza schoeniclus.

The Emberizidae includes the buntings of Eurasia and Africa, small, conical-billed passerines that have mostly been classified in the genus Emberiza. Most species are patterned in dull colours, though there are exceptions. The buntings of the genus Emberiza are mostly coloured in brown with streaks of black, white and grey, sometimes marked with yellow, and usually with the outer tail feathers partly or wholly white (Austin 1961). The crested bunting Melophus lathami, found between northern India and southern China, is mostly brown in the female but shiny black with rufous wings and tail in the male. The male of the slaty bunting Latoucheornis siemsseni of southern China is mostly slate-grey in coloration with a white belly and vent (Rising et al. 2011). The corn bunting Emberiza calandra of the western Palaearctic is a heavily built species that is sometimes treated as a separate genus owing to its lack of sexual dimorphism and structural feathers of the bill and plumage (Rising et al. 2011).

Emberizidae [Emberizinae, Emberizini]
|--Ammospiza maritimaFP64, USDI77
| |--A. m. maritimaUSDI77
| |--A. m. mirabilisUSDI77
| `--A. m. nigrescensUSDI77
|--Oreothraupis Sclater 1856RJ11
| `--O. arremonops (Sclater 1855) [=Saltator arremonops]RJ11
|--Piezorina Lafresnaye 1843 [=Piezorhina]RJ11
| `--P. cinerea (Lafresnaye 1843) [=Guiraca cinerea]RJ11
|--Xenospingus Cabanis 1867RJ11
| `--X. concolor (d’Orbigny & Lafresnaye 1837) [=Sylvia concolor]RJ11
|--Torreornis Barbour & Peters 1927RJ11
| `--T. inexpectata Barbour & Peters 1927RJ11
| |--T. i. inexpectataRJ11
| |--T. i. sigmani Spence & Smith 1961RJ11
| `--T. i. varonai Regalado Ruiz 1981RJ11
|--Urothraupis Taczanowski & Berlepsch 1885JT12, H11
| `--U. stolzmanni Taczanowski & Berlepsch 1885H11
|--Charitospiza Oberholser 1905RJ11
| `--C. eucosma Oberholser 1905 [incl. Fringilla ornata (preoc.)]RJ11
|--Coryphaspiza Gray 1840RJ11
| `--C. melanotis (Temminck 1822) [=Emberizoides melanotis]RJ11
| |--C. m. melanotisRJ11
| `--C. m. marajoara Sick 1967RJ11
|--Incaspiza Ridgway 1898RJ11
| |--I. laeta (Salvin 1895) [=Haemophila laeta]RJ11
| |--I. ortizi Zimmer 1952RJ11
| |--I. personata (Salvin 1895) [=Haemophila personata]RJ11
| |--I. pulchra (Sclater 1886) [=Haemophila pulchra]RJ11
| `--I. watkinsi Chapman 1925RJ11
|--Buarremon mesoxanthus Salvin 1866S66
`--Emberiza Linnaeus 1758CC10
| i. s.: E. alario Linnaeus 1758L58
| E. atrata Linnaeus 1758L58
| E. cineracea Brehm 1855RJ11
| |--E. c. cineraceaRJ11
| `--E. c. semenowi Zarudny 1904RJ11
| E. cristataE42
| E. familiaris Linnaeus 1758L58
| E. flaveola Linnaeus 1758L58
| E. koslowi Bianchi 1904RJ11
| E. luctuosaB41
| E. orix Linnaeus 1758L58
| E. poliopleura (Salvadori 1888) [=Fringillaria poliopleura]RJ11
| E. psittacea Linnaeus 1758L58
| E. quelea Linnaeus 1758L58
| E. sahari Levaillant 1850 [incl. E. s. sanghae, E. s. theresae]RJ11
| E. socotrana (Ogilvie & Grant 1899) [=Fringillaria socotrana]RJ11
| E. vincenti (Lowe 1932)JT12, RJ11 [=E. capensis vincentiRJ11]
|--+--+--E. cabanisi (Reichenow 1875)BKB15, RJ11 [=Polymitra (Fringillaria) cabanisiRJ11]
| | | |--E. c. cabanisiRJ11
| | | |--E. c. cognominata (Grote 1931)RJ11
| | | `--E. c. orientalis (Shelley 1882)RJ11
| | `--E. flaviventris Stephens 1815BKB15, RJ11
| | |--E. f. flaviventris [incl. E. f. carychroa, E. f. kalaharica]RJ11
| | |--E. f. flavigaster Cretzschmar 1828 [=E. xanthogaster (l. c.)]S05
| | `--E. f. princeps Clancey & Winterbottom 1960RJ11
| `--+--E. capensisBKB15
| `--+--E. impetuani Smith 1836BKB15, RJ11
| | |--E. i. impetuani [incl. E. i. eremica]RJ11
| | `--E. i. sloggetti (Macdonald 1957)RJ11
| `--+--E. striolata (Lichtenstein 1823)BKB15, RJ11 [=Fringilla striolataRJ11]
| | |--E. s. striolataRJ11
| | |--E. s. jebelmarrae (Lynes 1920)RJ11
| | `--E. s. saturatior (Sharpe 1901)RJ11
| `--E. tahapisi Smith 1836BKB15, RJ11 [=Fringillaria tahapisiB93]
| |--E. t. tahapisiS05
| |--E. t. arabica (Lorenz von Liburnau & Hellmayr 1902)RJ11
| |--E. t. goslingi (Alexander 1906)RJ11
| |--E. t. insularis (Ogilvie-Grant & Forbes 1899)RJ11
| |--E. t. nivenorum (Winterbottom 1965)RJ11 [=Fringillaria tahapisi nivenorumB93]
| `--E. t. septemstriata Rüppell 1837S05
`--+--+--+--Latoucheornis Bangs 1931BKB15, RJ11
| | | `--L. siemsseni (Martens 1906) [=Junco siemsseni]RJ11
| | `--E. elegans Temminck 1836BKB15, RJ11 [=Cristemberiza elegansRJ11]
| | |--E. e. elegans [incl. E. e. ticehursti]VP89
| | `--E. e. elegantula Swinhoe 1870RJ11
| `--+--+--E. yessoensis (Swinhoe 1874)BKB15, I92 [=Schoenicola yessoensisRJ11, Schoeniclus yessoensisRJ11]
| | | |--E. y. yessoensisRJ11
| | | `--E. y. continentalis Witherby 1913RJ11
| | `--+--E. pallasi (Cabanis 1851)BKB15, RJ11 [=Cynchramus pallasiRJ11, Schoeniclus pallasiRJ11]
| | | |--E. p. pallasi [incl. E. p. montana, E. p. suschkiniana]RJ11
| | | |--E. p. lydiae Portenko 1929RJ11
| | | `--E. p. polaris Middendorff 1853 [incl. E. p. latolineata]RJ11
| | `--E. schoeniclusBKB15
| `--+--+--E. chrysophrys Pallas 1776BKB15, RJ11 [=Ocyris chrysophrysRJ11]
| | `--+--E. tristrami Swinhoe 1870BKB15, RJ11 [=Ocyris tristramiRJ11]
| | `--E. variabilis Temminck 1836BKB15, RJ11 [=Ocyris variabilisRJ11]
| `--+--E. sulphurata Temminck & Schlegel 1848BKB15, RJ11 [=Ocyris sulphurataRJ11]
| `--+--+--E. aureola Pallas 1773BKB15, M01 [=Euspiza aureolaS89, Ocyris aureolaRJ11]
| | | |--E. a. aureolaRJ11
| | | `--E. a. ornata Shulpin 1928RJ11
| | `--E. spodocephala Pallas 1776BKB15, RJ11 [=Ocyris spodocephalaRJ11]
| | |--E. s. spodocephala [incl. E. s. extremiorientis, E. s. oligoxantha]RJ11
| | |--E. s. personata Temminck 1836RJ11
| | `--E. s. sordida Blyth 1845RJ11
| `--+--E. rutila Pallas 1776BKB15, RJ11 (see below for synonymy)
| `--+--E. pusilla Pallas 1776BKB15, M01 [=Ocyris pusillaRJ11]
| `--+--E. fucata Pallas 1776BKB15, RJ11 [=E. fuscataS89]
| | |--E. f. fucataRJ11
| | |--E. f. arcuata Sharpe 1888RJ11
| | `--E. f. kuatunensis La Touche 1925 [incl. E. fucata fluviatilis]RJ11
| `--E. rustica Pallas 1776BKB15, M01 [=Ocyris rusticaRJ11]
| |--E. r. rusticaRJ11
| `--E. r. latifascia Portenko 1930RJ11
`--+--+--Melophus Swainson 1837BKB15, RJ11
| | |--M. lathami (Gray 1831) [=Emberiza lathami; incl. M. lathami subcristata]RJ11
| | `--M. melanicterusS89
| `--+--E. bruniceps Brandt 1841BKB15, RJ11 [incl. E. icteriaRJ11]
| `--E. melanocephala Scopoli 1769BKB15, RJ11
`--+--E. calandra Linnaeus 1758BKB15, L58 [=Miliaria calandraJT12]
| |--E. c. calandra (see below for synonymy)RJ11
| |--E. c. buturlini Johansen 1907RJ11
| `--E. c. clanceyi Meinertzhagen 1947RJ11
`--+--+--E. jankowskii Taczanowski 1888BKB15, RJ11
| `--+--E. cioides Brandt 1843BKB15, M01
| | |--E. c. cioides [incl. E. c. tangutorum]RJ11
| | |--E. c. castaneiceps Moore 1856RJ11
| | |--E. c. ciopsis Bonaparte 1850 [incl. E. c. shiretokoensis]RJ11
| | |--E. c. tarbagataica Sushkin 1925RJ11
| | `--E. c. weigoldi Jacobi 1923 [incl. E. c. ussuriensis, E. c. vagans]RJ11
| `--+--E. cia Linnaeus 1766BKB15, RJ11
| | |--E. c. cia [incl. E. c. africana, E. c. callensis, E. c. mokrzechyi]RJ11
| | |--E. c. flemingorum Martens 1972RJ11
| | |--E. c. par Hartert 1904 [incl. E. c. lasdini, E. c. prageri, E. c. serebrowskii]RJ11
| | `--E. c. stracheyi Moore 1856RJ11
| `--E. godlewskii Taczanowski 1874BKB15, RJ11
| |--E. g. godlewskii [incl. E. g. gobica, E. g. nanshanica]RJ11
| |--E. g. decolorata Sushkin 1925RJ11
| |--E. g. khamensis Sushkin 1925RJ11 [=E. cia khamensisA02]
| |--E. g. omissa Rothschild 1921 [incl. E. g. bangsi, E. g. styani]RJ11
| `--E. g. yunnanensis Sharpe 1902RJ11
`--+--+--E. buchanani Blyth 1845BKB15, RJ11
| | |--E. b. buchananiRJ11
| | |--E. b. cerrutii De Filippi 1863RJ11
| | `--E. b. neobscura Paynter 1970RJ11
| `--+--E. caesia Cretzschmar 1827BKB15, RJ11
| `--E. hortulana Linnaeus 1758BKB15, CC10
`--+--E. cirlus Linnaeus 1766BKB15, CC10 [incl. E. c. nigrostriataRJ11, E. c. portucaliaeRJ11]
`--+--E. stewarti (Blyth 1854)BKB15, RJ11 [=Euspiza stewartiRJ11]
`--+--*E. citrinella Linnaeus 1758CC10, BKB15, CC10
| |--E. c. citrinellaCC10
| |--E. c. caliginosa Clancey 1940CC10
| `--E. c. erythrogenys Brehm 1855RJ11
`--E. leucocephalos Gmelin 1771BKB15, RJ11
|--E. l. leucocephalos [incl. E. l. karpovi, E. l. stachanowi]RJ11
`--E. l. fronto Stresemann 1930RJ11

Inorganic: Emberiza variabilis minilorientalis Okamura 1987O87

Emberiza calandra calandra Linnaeus 1758 [incl. E. calandra algeriensis, E. calandra graeca, E. calandra ignobilis, E. calandra kleinschmidti, E. calandra sarmatia, E. calandra thanneri, E. calandra volhynica]RJ11

Emberiza rutila Pallas 1776BKB15, RJ11 [=Euspiza rutilaS89, Ocyris rutilaRJ11; incl. Emberiza rutila pamirensisRJ11]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A02] Andheria, A. P. 2002. Sighting of the rock bunting Emberiza cia Linn. in Ranthambore National Park, Rajasthan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 536–537.

[B41] Bridges, T. 1841. Notes on various birds and mammals from Chile. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 9: 93–95.

[B93] Brooke, R. K. 1993. Annotated catalogue of the Aves type specimens in the South African Museum. Annals of the South African Museum 102 (10): 327–349.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[E42] Ewer, W. 1842. List of a collection of birds from India. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 10: 91–93.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[H11] Hilty, S. L. 2011. Family Thraupidae (tanagers). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 46–329. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M01] Madarász, J. 1901. Madarak [Vögel]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 21–39. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[O87] Okamura, C. 1987. New facts: Homo and all Vertebrata were born simultaneously in the former Paleozoic in Japan. Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory 15: 347–573.

[RJ11] Rising, J. D., A. Jaramillo, J. L. Copete, P. G. Ryan & S. C. Madge. 2011. Family Emberizidae (buntings and New World sparrows). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 428–683. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[S89] Salvadori, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea nella Birmania e nelle regioni vicine. XIX.—Uccelli raccolti nei Monti Carin a nord-est di Tounghoo, nel Pegù presso Rangoon e Tounghoo e nel Tenasserim presso Malewoon. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 369–438.

[S66] Salvin, O. 1866. Descriptions of eight new species of birds from Veragua. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 67–76.

[S05] Steinheimer, F. D. 2005. Eduard Rüppel’s avian types at the Natural History Museum, Tring (Aves). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 233–264.

[USDI77] USDI (United States Department of the Interior). 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants—republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420–36431.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *