Empididae

Clinocera cf. stagnalis, copyright Rui Andrade.

Belongs within: Empidoidea.
Contains: Empidinae, Brachystomatinae.

The Empididae, dance flies, are a group of long-legged flies that get their vernacular name in reference to the courtship displays performed by males of some species. Members are characterised by unrotated and symmetrical terminalia, and wings with vein Rs originating at a distance from the humeral crossvein h equal to or longer than length of h and the costa ends at, or just beyond, R4+5 or continuing along the wing margin.

Members of the subfamilies Clinocerinae and Brachystomatinae have the male cerci developed but simple in structure. Clinocerinae have narrow wings lacking an anal lobe and with CuA2 joining A1 before the crossvein bm-cu (Wahlberg & Johanson 2018).

<==Empididae [Empidae, Empides, Empidinea, Empidoinea]CS09
    |--+--EmpidinaeWJ18
    |  `--BrachystomatinaeWJ18
    `--ClinocerinaeWJ18
         |  i. s.: OreothaliaSK81
         |         ProclinopygaCS09
         |         Trichoclinocera hamiferaCS09
         |         AsymphylopteraCS09
         |         Fushunempites Hong 2002H02
         |           `--*F. furvis Hong 2002H02
         |         RoederiodesCS09
         |           |--R. recurvatusCS09
         |           |--R. wigginsiCS09
         |           `--R. wirthiCS09
         |         AfroclinoceraWJ18
         |         BergenstammiaWJ18
         |         ClinocerellaWJ18
         |         HypenellaWJ18
         |         PhaeobaliaWJ18
         |         ProagomyiaWJ18
         |         RhyacodromiaWJ18
         |--+--DolichocephalaWJ18
         |  |    |--D. argusCS09
         |  |    |--D. guttataWJ18
         |  |    `--D. ocellataWJ18
         |  `--+--Kowarzia tibiellaWJ18
         |     `--WiedemanniaWJ18
         |          |--W. (Wiedemannia) bistigmaWJ18
         |          `--W. (Pseudowiedemannia) lamellataWJ18
         `--Clinocera Meigen 1803WJ18, B89 [incl. ArdopteraB89, Leptoscelis Halid. 1833B89]
              |  i. s.: C. caeruleaWT11
              |         C. lineataCS09
              |         C. rubriventrisCS09
              |         C. stagnalisSK81
              |         C. sylvaticaR26
              |--C. wesmaeliWJ18
              `--+--C. fontinalisWJ18
                 `--+--C. maculataWJ18
                    `--C. nivalisWJ18
Empididae incertae sedis:
  Ecommocydromia difficilis Schlüter 1978P92
  DryodromiaWJ18
  DrapetiellaP92
  EuhybosP92
  EuthyneuriellaP92
  MeghyperiellaP92
  OustaletmyiaP92
  PalaeoedaleaP92
  PalaeoleptopezaP92
  PalaeoparamesiaP92
  ParathalassiellaP92
  ThirzaP92
  TimalphesP92
  Enoplempis Bigot 1880B89
  Pachymeria Stephen 1829 [incl. Pachymerina Macquart 1834]B89
  Synamphotera Loew 1858B89
  Eriogaster Macquart 1838B89
  Homalocnemis Philippi 1865B89
  Sciodromyia Haliday 1840B89

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B89] Bigot, J.-M.-F. 1889. Diptères nouveaux ou peu connus. 34e partie. XLII. Empidi. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 111–134.

[CS09] Cumming, J. M., & B. J. Sinclair. 2009. Empididae (dance flies, balloon flies, predaceous flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 653–670. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[H02] Hong Y. 2002. Amber Insect of China. Beijing Scientific and Technological Publishing House.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[SK81] Steyskal, G. C., & L. V. Knutson. 1981. Empididae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 607–624. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[WJ18] Wahlberg, E., & K. A. Johanson. 2018. Molecular phylogenetics reveals novel relationships within Empidoidea (Diptera). Systematic Entomology 43: 619–636.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

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