Emydidae

Red-eared slider Trachemys scripta elegans, copyright J. N. Stuart.

Belongs within: Centrocryptodira.

The Emydidae are a family of mostly aquatic tortoises found primarily in the Americas. The only representatives native elsewhere are species of the genus Emys found in the western Palaearctic region. However, the red-eared slider Trachemys scripta has, through the pet trade, become an invasive species in many parts of the world.

Within the Emydidae, members of the subfamily Emydinae have the palatine excluded from the triturating surface, and the posterior palatine foramen much larger than the foramen orbito-nasale (Gaffney & Meylan 1988).

Synapomorphies (from Gaffney & Meylan 1988): Batagurine process absent, no pterygoid-basioccipital contact; angular usually reaching Meckel’s cartilage; double articulation of fifth and sixth cervical; chromosome number 2n = 50.

<==Emydidae [Panemydidae]
| i. s.: GlyptemysCP03
| |--G. insculpta (Le Conte 1830)JPG04
| `--G. muhlenbergii (Schoepf 1801)JPG04
| Pseudograptemys Hutchison 1996H96
| `--*P. inornata (Loomis 1904) [=Chrysemys inornata, Graptemys inornata; incl. G. cordifera Clark 1937]H96
|--EmydinaeGM88
| |--Clemmys Ritgen 1828GM88, F91
| | |--C. caspicaCS77
| | |--C. guttata (Schneider 1792)JPG04
| | |--C. insculptaW-CL06
| | `--C. muhlenbergiMB93
| `--+--+--EmydoideaGM88
| | `--TerrapeneGM88
| | |--T. carolina (Linnaeus 1758)JPG04
| | |--T. coahuila Schmidt & Owens 1944JPG04
| | |--T. nelsoni Stejneger 1925JPG04
| | `--T. ornata (Agassiz 1857)JPG04
| `--Emys Dumeriel 1806GM88, F91
| |--E. blandingii (Holbrook 1838)JPG04
| |--E. cibollensis Cope 1877C77
| |--E. euthnetusC77
| |--E. geographica [=Testudo geographica]J23
| |--E. gravisC77
| |--E. lativertebralis Cope 1877C77
| |--E. marmorata Baird & Girard 1852JPG04
| |--E. nebrascensis Leidy 1851H96
| |--E. serpentaria [=Testudo serpentaria]J23
| |--E. testudineusC77
| `--E. vyomingensisC77
`--Deirochelyinae [Deirochelyoidae]GM88
|--Malaclemys terrapin (Schoepf 1793)GM88, JPG04
|--GraptemysGM88
| |--G. barbouri Carr & Marchand 1942JPG04
| |--G. caglei Haynes & McKown 1974JPG04
| |--G. ernsti Lovich & McCoy 1992JPG04
| |--G. flavimaculata Cagle 1954JPG04
| |--G. geographica (LeSueur 1817)JPG04
| |--G. gibbonsi Lovich & McCoy 1992JPG04
| |--G. kohniCP03
| |--G. nigrinoda Cagle 1954JPG04
| |--G. oculifera (Baur 1890)JPG04
| |--G. ouachitensis Cagle 1953JPG04
| |--G. pseudogeographica (Gray 1831)JPG04
| |--G. pulchra Baur 1893JPG04
| `--G. versa Stejneger 1925JPG04
`--+--Chrysemys Gray 1844GM88, H96
| |--C. antiqua (Clark 1937) [=Trachemys antiqua]H96
| |--C. bicarinata (Bell 1849)B93
| |--C. cinerea [incl. C. cinerea var. belli]W06
| |--C. picta (Schneider 1783) [=Testudo picta]JPG04
| |--C. scriptaB81
| |--C. testudiniformis (Owen 1844)B93
| `--C. timida Hay 1908H96
`--+--Deirochelys reticularia (Latreille 1801)GM88, JPG04
`--+--PseudemysGM88
| |--P. alabamensis Baur 1893JPG04
| |--P. concinna (Le Conte 1830)JPG04 [=Chrysemys concinnaR93]
| |--P. floridana (Le Conte 1830)JPG04
| |--P. nelsoni Carr 1938JPG04
| |--P. rubriventris (Le Conte 1830)JPG04
| |--P. scriptaB81
| |--P. texana Baur 1893JPG04
| `--P. troostiD56
`--TrachemysGM88
|--T. adiutrix (Vanzolini 1995)JPG04
|--T. callirostris (Gray 1855)JPG04
|--T. decorata (Barbour & Carr 1940)JPG04
|--T. decussata (Gray 1831)JPG04
|--T. dorbigni (Dumeril & Bibron 1835)JPG04
|--T. emolli (Legler 1990)JPG03
|--T. gaigeae (Hartweg 1939)JPG04
|--T. grayiCP03
|--T. nebulosa (Van Denburgh 1895)JPG04
|--T. ornata (Gray 1831)JPG04
|--T. scripta (Schoepf 1792)JPG04
| |--T. s. scriptaW-CL06
| |--T. s. elegansW-CL06
| `--T. s. trootsiW-CL06
|--T. stejnegeri (Schmidt 1928)JPG04
|--T. taylori (Legler 1960)JPG04
|--T. terrapen (Bonnaterre 1789)JPG04
|--T. venusta (Gray 1855)JPG04
`--T. yaquia (Legler & Webb 1970)JPG04

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B93] Benton, M. J. 1993. Reptilia. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 681–715. Chapman & Hall: London.

[B81] Brooks, D. R. 1981. Raw similarity measures of shared parasites: an empirical tool for determining host phylogenetic relationships? Systematic Zoology 30 (2): 203–207.

[CP03] Claude, J., E. Paradis, H. Tong & J.-C. Auffray. 2003. A geometric morphometric assessment of the effects of environment and cladogenesis on the evolution of the turtle shell. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 79: 485–501.

[C77] Cope, E. D. 1877. Report upon the extinct Vertebrata obtained in New Mexico by parties of the expedition of 1874. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (2): i–iv, 1–370.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[D56] Dawes, B. 1956. The Trematoda with special reference to British and other European forms. University Press: Cambridge.

[F91] Freess, W. B. 1991. Beiträge zur Kenntnis von Fauna und Flora des marinen Mitteloligozäns bei Leipzig. Altenburger Naturwissenschaftliche Forschungen 6: 3–74.

[GM88] Gaffney, E. S., & P. A. Meylan. 1988. A phylogeny of turtles. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods vol. 1. Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds pp. 157–219. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[H96] Hutchison, J. H. 1996. Testudines. In: Prothero, D. R., & R. J. Emry (eds) The Terrestrial Eocene–Oligocene Transition in North America pp. 337–353. Cambridge University Press.

[J23] James, E. 1823. Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, performed in the years 1819 and ’20, by order of the Hon. J. C. Calhoun, sec’y of war: under the command of Major Stephen H. Long. From the notes of Major Long, Mr. T. Say, and other gentlemen of the exploring party vol. 1. H. C. Carey & I. Lea: Philadelphia.

[JPG04] Joyce, W. G., J. F. Parham & J. A. Gauthier. 2004. Developing a protocol for the conversion of rank-based taxon names to phylogenetically defined clade names, as exemplified by turtles. Journal of Paleontology 78 (5): 989–1013.

[MB93] Malecki, R. A., B. Blossey, S. D. Hight, D. Schroeder, L. T. Kok & J. R. Coulson. 1993. Biological control of purple loosestrife. BioScience 43 (10): 680–686.

[R93] Rieppel, O. 1993. Patterns of diversity in the reptilian skull. In: Hanken, J., & B. K. Hall (eds) 1993. The Skull vol. 2. Patterns of Structural and Systematic Diversity pp. 344–390. The University of Chicago Press.

[W-CL06] Watkins-Colwell, G. J., T. A. Leenders, B. T. Roach, D. J. Drew, G. Dancho & J. Yuckienuz. 2006. New distribution records for amphibians and reptiles in Connecticut, with notes on the status of an introduced species. Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History 47 (1–2): 47–62.

[W06] Werner, F. 1906. Die nördlichsten Reptilien und Batrachier. In: Römer, F., & F. Schaudinn (eds) Fauna Arctica. Eine Zusammenstellun der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonder Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pp. 527–544. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

 

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *