Enicospilus

Enicospilus sp., copyright Andreas Kay.

Belongs within: Ichneumonidae.

Enicospilus is a cosmopolitan genus of ichneumon wasps, most diverse in tropical regions. They are commonly associated with disturbed habitats. Recorded hosts include moths of the families Noctuidae and Lymantriidae (Gauld 1984). Representatives are commonly characterised by more or less twisted mandibles, and detached sclerotised patches in the discosubmarginal cell of the fore wing (Gauld 1984).

Characters (from Gauld 1984): Medium-sized to large, fore wing length 7–19mm; mandible weakly to strongly tapered, twisted 5–90°; occipital carina complete or narrowly mediodorsally interrupted; interocellar area yellowish or black. Posterior transverse carina of mesosternum complete; propodeum with anterior transverse carina usually complete, the area behind this generally coarsely sculptured, posterior transverse carina absent or vestigial. Fore tibial spur without a membranous flange behind macrotrichial comb; mid and hind trochantelli simple. Fore wing with 1m-cu arcuate to sinuous; discosubmarginal cell with a large glabrous fenestra adjacent to Rs+2r, the area usually bearing one or more detached sclerites. Hind wing with first abscissa of Rs straight or weakly bowed; distal hamuli of similar size and shape.

<==Enicospilus Stephens 1835 (see below for synonymy)G84
|--E. ramidulus (Linnaeus 1758)MS01, L58 [=Ichneumon ramidulusG84; incl. Ophion merdariusG84, *Enicospilus merdariusG84]
|--E. albigerG84
|--E. americanusS96
|--E. amplipennis [incl. E. longinotus]G84
|--E. antennatusG84
|--E. atoponeurus [incl. *Atoponeura concolor Szépligeti 1905]G84
|--*Metophion’ bicolor Szépligeti 1905G84
|--*Ceratospilus’ biroi Szépligeti 1905G84
|--‘Allocamptus’ bituberculatusG84
|--E. boonaminiG84
|--E. borroloolaiG84
|--E. cameronii [incl. Ophion curvinervis, *Ophiomorpha curvinervis]G84
|--E. cardaleaeG84
|--E. chiuaeG84
|--E. coarctatus [incl. E. deflexus]G84
|--E. commoniG84
|--E. consobrinusG84
|--*Schizospilus’ divisus Seyrig 1935G84
|--E. dolosus (see below for synonymy)G84
|--E. dubitator [incl. E. crassus, E. fulvicaput, E. opimus]G84
|--E. dubius [=Ophion (Enicospilus) dubius, *Pterospilus dubius]G84
|--E. flavivenae [incl. E. pilatus, E. stramineus]G84
|--E. flavocephalus [incl. E. albicaput, E. lunulatus, E. similus]G84
|--E. fraucaiG84
|--E. fusiformisG84
|--E. gameziDW96
|--E. gardei [incl. E. consimilis, E. rex]G84
|--*Pleuroneurophion’ hawaiiensis Ashmead 1900G84
|--E. inghamiG84
|--E. insularisG84
|--E. interruptus [incl. E. melanospilus, E. pellospilus]G84
|--E. javanus [incl. E. diurnus, E. fulacorensis, E. gephyrus]G84
|--E. lineolatus [incl. E. flatus, E. gussakovskii, E. striatus, E. striolatus, E. unicornis, E. uniformis]G84
|--E. melanocarpus (see below for synonymy)G84
|--E. morleyi [incl. E. trinotatus]G84
|--‘Ophion (*Dispilus)’ natalensis Kriechbaumer 1894G84
|--E. obliquusG84
|--‘Eremotylus’ orbitalis [=*Eremotyloides orbitalis]G84
|--E. pseudantennatusG84
|--E. pulkusG84
|--E. quogiaeG84
|--E. ruskiniG84
|--E. sausiG84
|--E. sesamiaeG84
|--E. signativentrisG84
|--E. skeltoniiG84
|--E. trimaculatus [=Ophion (Enicospilus) trimaculatus, *Trispilus trimaculatus]G84
|--E. undulatusP93 [=Ophion undulatusG84, *Allocamptus undulatusG84, *Cryptocamptus undulatusG84, *Cymatoneura undulataG84]
|--‘Ophion’ unicallosus [=*Amesospilus unicallosus]G84
`--E. xanthocephalus [incl. E. bullatus, E. clinatus, E. obliquus, E. paraclinatus, E. pexus]G84

Enicospilus Stephens 1835 [=Henicospilus Agassiz 1846; incl. Allocamptus Foerster 1869, Amesospilus Enderlein 1918, Atoponeura Szépligeti 1905, Ceratospilus Szépligeti 1905, Cryptocamptus Brèthes 1909, Cymatoneura Kriechbaumer 1901, Dispilus Kriechbaumer 1894, Eremotyloides Perkins 1915, Metophion Szépligeti 1905, Ophiomorpha Szépligeti 1905 non Lundgren 1891, Pleuroneurophion Ashmead 1900, Pterospilus Kriechbaumer 1901 non Rondani 1856, Schizospilus Seyrig 1935, Trispilus Kriechbaumer 1901]G84

Enicospilus dolosus [incl. E. apicifumatus, E. atricornis, E. dwibinduae, E. hammersteini, E. laticarinatus, E. melanospilus, E. samoanus, E. spilonotus]G84

Enicospilus melanocarpus [incl. E. batavianus, E. brunnis, E. crassivena, E. nigrinervis, E. nigrivenalis, E. nocturnus, E. quintuplex, E. reticulatus, E. turneri, E. uncivena, E. atricornis var. zeylanicus]G84

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[DW96] Dangerfield, P. C., J. B. Whitfield, M. J. Sharkey, D. H. Janzen & I. Mercado. 1996. Hansonia, a new genus of cardiochiline Braconidae (Hymenoptera) from Costa Rica, with notes on its biology. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (3): 592–596.

[G84] Gauld, I. D. 1984. An Introduction to the Ichneumonidae of Australia. British Museum (Natural History).

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[P93] Pittaway, A. R. 1993. The Hawkmoths of the Western Palaearctic. Harley Books: Colchester.

[S96] Smith, D. R. 1996. Trigonalyidae (Hymenoptera) in the eastern United States: seasonal flight activity, distribution, hosts. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (1): 109–118.

 

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