Entactinaria

Palaeoephippium bifurcum, from here.

Belongs within: Radiozoa.
Contains: Entactiniidae, Astroentactiniidae.

The Palaeoscenidiidae are a family of radiolarians known from the Ordovician to the Jurassic.

<==EntactinariaMB07
    |--Thalassothamnus Haecker 1906AA05 [ThalassothamnaceaMB07]
    |    `--T. pinetumAA05
    |--EntactiniataAA05
    |    |--EntactiniidaeAA05
    |    |--AstroentactiniidaeAA05
    |    `--Hexastylidae [Hexastylcea]MB07
    |         |--Centacontium Popofsky 1912AA05
    |         |--Centrolonche Popofsky 1912AA05
    |         |--Stigmosphaera Haeckel 1887AA05
    |         |--Stigmosphaerusa Hollande & Enjumet 1960AA05
    |         |--Stigmostylus Hollande & Enjumet 1960AA05
    |         `--Hexastylus Haeckel 1881AA05
    |              `--H. horridusAA05
    `--Palaeoscenidiidae [Palaeoscenidiacea]MB07
         |--Palaeotrifidus ballator Renz 1990M04
         |--Apophysiactinia Won 1997AA05
         |--Archaeosemantis Dumitrica 1978AA05
         |--Deflantrica Wakamatsu, Sugiyama & Furutani 1990AA05
         |--Palaeorubus Ishiga 1987AA05
         |--Tandarnia Dumitrica 1982AA05
         |--Fukujius Furutani 1990M04, AA05
         |    `--F. yamakoshii Furutani 1990M04
         |--Palaeotripus Goodbody 1986M04
         |    `--P. sexabrachiatus Renz 1990M04
         |--Palaeopyramidium Goodbody 1986M04
         |    `--*P. spinosum Goodbody 1986M04
         |--Holdsworthum Furutani 1990M04
         |    `--*H. japonicus Furutani 1990M04
         |--Goodbodium Furutani 1990M04
         |    |--*G. flammatum (Goodbody 1986) [=Palaeoscenidium flammatum; incl. G. elegans Furutani 1990]M04
         |    |--G. nishiyamai Furutani 1990M04
         |    `--G. rarispinosum (Goodbody 1986) [=Palaeoscenidium rarispinosum]M04
         |--Insolitignum MacDonald 1999M04
         |    |--*I. dissimile (Goodbody 1986) [=Palaeoephippium dissimile; incl. I. peraniuma MacDonald 1999]M04
         |    |--I. cancellatum (Goodbody 1986) (see below for synonymy)M04
         |    `--I. vivanima MacDonald 1999M04
         |--Palaeodecaradium Goodbody 1986M04
         |    |--*P. umbelliforme Goodbody 1986M04
         |    |--P. apertum (Goodbody 1986) [=Palaeoscenidium apertum; incl. Palaeotripus nudus Goodbody 1986]M04
         |    `--P. gordoni MacDonald 2004M04
         |--Palaeoscenidium Deflandre 1953M04
         |    |--P. cladophorumAA05
         |    |--P. robustumAA05
         |    |--P. scaurumAA05
         |    `--P. tabernaculumAA05
         `--Palaeoephippium Goodbody 1986M04
              |--*P. bifurcum Goodbody 1986 [incl. P. aranea Goodbody 1986]M04
              |--P. echinatum Goodbody 1986M04
              |--‘Palaeotripus’ impariramosus Goodbody 1986M04
              |--P. multiramosum Goodbody 1986M04
              |--P. octoramosum Renz 1990M04
              |--P. radices Goodbody 1986 [incl. P. ramipendentes Goodbody 1986, P. reteforme Goodbody 1986]M04
              `--P. spinosum Goodbody 1986 [incl. Palaeotripus monospinosum Goodbody 1986]M04
Entactinaria incertae sedis:
  ProtoentactiniidaeMB07
    |--Protoentactinia Kozur, Mostler & Repetski 1996AA05
    |    |--*P. gracilispinosa Kozur, Mostler & Repetski 1996M04
    |    |--P. bifurcata Maletz & Bruton 2007MB07
    |    `--P. tricorne (Goodbody 1986) [=Palaeoephippium tricorne]M04
    `--Noblella Kozur, Mostler & Repetski 1996 [incl. Paulanoblella Kozur & Repetski 2002]MB07
  Sphaeroentactinia Maletz & Bruton 2007 [Sphaeroentactiniidae]MB07
    |--*S. hexaspinosa Maletz & Bruton 2007MB07
    |--S. bispinosa Maletz & Bruton 2007MB07
    `--S. integrata Maletz & Bruton 2007MB07

Insolitignum cancellatum (Goodbody 1986) [=Palaeoscenidium cancellatum; incl. Palaeoephippium adraini MacDonald 1999, Palaeotripus cancellatus Goodbody 1986]M04

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AA05] Afanasieva, M. S., E. O. Amon, Y. V. Agarkov & D. S. Boltovskoy. 2005. Radiolarians in the geological record. Paleontological Journal 39 (Suppl. 3): S135–S392.

[M04] MacDonald, E. W. 2004. Palaeoscenidiidae (Radiolaria) from the Lower Silurian of the Cape Phillips Formation, Cornwallis Island, Nunavut, Canada. Journal of Paleontology 78: 257–274.

[MB07] Maletz, J., & D. L. Bruton. 2007. Lower Ordovician (Chewtonian to Castlemainian) radiolarians of Spitsbergen. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 5 (3): 245–288.

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