Entiminae

Lachnopus floridanus, copyright David Victoria.

Belongs within: Curculionidae.
Contains: Cyphicerini, Eustylini, Phyllobiini, Peritelini, Sciaphilini, Pachyrhynchini, Eupholini, Alophini, Tanymecini, Geonemini, Hyperinae, Sitona, Gonipterinae, Cyclominae, Polydrusini, Otiorhynchini, Tropiphorini, Trachyphloeini, Leptopiini.

The Entiminae, broad-nosed weevils, have a shorter, broader snout than most other weevils. They typically bear a deciduous process on the mandibles that breaks off shortly after emergence, leaving a distinct scar. The apex of the hind tibia bears only a short tooth or spine on the inner angle. Larvae are typically external feeders on roots in soil (Anderson 2002).

Molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests that the Entiminae may not be monophyletic with regard to the related subfamilies Hyperinae and Cyclominae (Gillett et al. 2014).

<==Entiminae (see below for synonymy)
    |--NaupactiniLE23
    |    |--Litostylus pudensGC-P14
    |    |--Mesagroicus Schoenherr 1840 [=Mesagroecus Agassiz 1846; incl. Lepidocricus Pierce 1910]A02
    |    |--Phacepholis Horn 1876A02
    |    |--Brachycamacus Poinar, Legalov & Brown 2013 [Brachycamacina]PLB13
    |    |    `--*B. gyrommatus Poinar, Legalov & Brown 2013PLB13
    |    |--Aramigus Horn 1876 [incl. Aomopactus Jekel 1876]A02
    |    |    `--A. tesselatus (Say 1824)A02
    |    |--Artipus Sahlberg 1823A02
    |    |    `--A. floridanus Horn 1876A02
    |    |--Glaphyrometopus Pierce 1913A02
    |    |    `--G. ornithodorus Pierce 1913A02
    |    |--Pactorrhinus Ancey 1881A02
    |    |    `--P. grisescens Ancey 1881A02
    |    |--Platyomus Sahlberg 1823 [incl. Eustylomorphus Pierce 1915, Pachyus Kuschel 1955, Pseudocyphus Schaeffer 1905]A02
    |    |    `--P. flexicaulis (Schaeffer 1905)A02
    |    |--Pantomorus Schoenherr 1840 (see below for synonymy)A02
    |    |    |--P. cervinus (Boheman 1840)HF03
    |    |    `--P. pallidulus Emden 1936A02
    |    |--Atrichonotus Buchanan 1939 [incl. Floresianellus Lanteri 1981, Floresianus Hustache 1939]A02
    |    |    |--*A. taeniatulus (Berg 1881) [=Naupactus taeniatulus]M94
    |    |    `--*Floresianus’ sordidus Hustache 1939M94
    |    |--Ericydeus Pascoe 1880A02
    |    |    |--E. lautus (LeConte 1856)A02
    |    |    `--E. placidus (Horn 1876)A02
    |    `--Naupactus Dejean 1821 (see below for synonymy)A02
    |         |--N. cervinus Boheman in Schoenherr 1840 [=Asynonychus cervinus]M94
    |         |--N. godmanni (Crotch 1867)A02 [=*Asynonychus godmaniM94]
    |         |--N. leucoloma Boheman 1840A02 [=*Graphognathus leucolomaM94]
    |         |--N. minor (Buchanan 1942)A02
    |         |--N. peregrinus (Buchanan 1939)A02 [=Pantomorus peregrinusM94, Graphognathus peregrinusM94]
    |         `--N. xanthographusML05
    `--+--+--HyperinaeLE23
       |  `--SitoniniMPJ18
       |       |--SitonaGC-P14
       |       `--ChlorophanusMPJ18
       |            |--C. sibiricusMPJ18
       |            `--C. viridisC01
       `--+--+--GonipterinaeLE23
          |  `--CyclominaeLE23
          `--+--+--+--+--PolydrusiniLE23
             |  |  |  `--Laparocerus [Laparocerini]GC-P14
             |  |  |       `--L. freyiGC-P14
             |  |  `--+--+--OtiorhynchiniGC-P14
             |  |     |  `--TropiphoriniGC-P14
             |  |     `--+--MyorhininiGC-P14
             |  |        `--TrachyphloeiniGC-P14
             |  `--+--Barianus [Oosomini]GC-P14
             |     `--BrachyderiniGC-P14
             |          |--Strophosoma Billberg 1820 (see below for synonymy)A02
             |          |    |--S. capitatumLB20
             |          |    |--S. melanogrammum (Forster 1771)A02
             |          |    `--‘Strophosomus’ obesusC01
             |          `--Brachyderes Schoenherr 1823 (see below for synonymy)A02
             |               |--B. incanus (Linnaeus 1758)A02
             |               `--B. rugatusGC-P14
             `--LeptopiiniLE23
Entiminae incertae sedis:
  Achradidus milleri (Tournier 1874)HF03
  Conocoetus baudii (Faust 1889)HF03
  ParascythopusHF03
  CyphiceriniA02
  StrophomorphusHF03
    |--S. colonnellii Pelletier 1999HF03
    |--S. impressicollis Tournier 1874HF03
    |--S. milleri Tournier 1874HF03
    |--S. minutus Tournier 1874HF03
    |--S. perrinae Pelletier 1999HF03
    `--S. ventricosus (Chevrolat 1880)HF03
  Dorotheus guidensis Kuschel 1959PLB13
  Arostropsis groehni Yunakov & Kirejtshuk 2011PLB13
  PaonaupactusPLB13
    |--P. cephalotes (Voss 1972)PLB13
    `--P. sitonitoides Voss 1953PLB13
  ProtonaupactusPLB13
    |--P. microphthalmus Zherikhin 1971PLB13
    |--P. sobrinus (Voss 1972)PLB13
    `--P. viridis (Wanat & Borowiec 1986)PLB13
  Archaeoscipahilus marshalli Legalov 2012PLB13
  Archaeocallirhopalus larssoni Legalov 2013PLB13
  PromecopsPLB13
    |--P. postica Fåhrs. 1840 [incl. P. alboscutellata Chv. 1880, P. lateralis]FS90
    `--P. tumidirostris Poinar & Brown 2011PLB13
  Gymnopholus (Symbiopholus) lichenifer Gressitt 1966B14
  Apirocalus cornutusMac86
  CoptorhynchusMas86
    |--C. bombicollis Macleay 1886Mac86
    |--C. gestroi Pascoe 1885Mas86
    |--C. jansoni Pascoe 1871Mas86
    |--C. lateralisMas86
    |--C. melancholicusMas86
    |--C. nudus Macleay 1886Mac86
    |--C. scabratusMas86
    |--C. speculatus Macleay 1886Mac86
    `--C. tessellatusMac86
  Celeuthetes echinatus (Fabricius 1801)Z93 [=Curculio echinatusZ93; incl. Ce. australisMas86, Ce. paganusMas86]
  Psomeles oblongusMas86
  Tyloderes spinosus Boisduval 1835Mas86
  MerimnetesMas86
    |--M. tenuis Germ. 1848Mas86
    `--M. uniformisMas86
  Euphalia pardalis Pascoe 1870Mas86
  ProxyrusMas86
    |--P. abstersus Pascoe 1870Mas86
    `--P. lecideosus Pascoe 1870Mas86
  AtmesiaMas86
    |--A. glaucina Pascoe 1873Mas86
    `--A. marginata Pascoe 1870Mas86
  TimaretaMas86
    |--T. crinita Pascoe 1874Mas86
    |--T. figurata Pascoe 1872Mas86
    `--T. satellina Pascoe 1872Mas86
  Phylda periteloides Pascoe 1869Mas86
  TitiniaMas86
    |--T. ignaria Pascoe 1869Mas86
    `--T. marmorata Pascoe 1872Mas86
  Idaspora terrea Pascoe 1869Mas86
  TelenicaMas86
    |--T. nebulosa Pascoe 1872Mas86
    `--T. sublimbata Pascoe 1872Mas86
  Epherina longicornis Pascoe 1869Mas86
  Synomus cephalotes Pascoe 1885Mas86
  Bothynorrhynchus [incl. Opetiopteryx]Z93
    `--B. lascivusMas86
  Psapharus Schoenherr 1823 [incl. Hybauchinia]Z93
    |--*P. infaustusZ93 [=Curculio infaustusZ93, Cherrus infaustusB35; incl. Ch. bulbiferMas86, Ch. granulatusMas86]
    `--P. mistothes [incl. Hybauchinia nodulosa]Z93
  DeracanthusZ93
    |--*D. spinifex [=Curculio spinifex]Z93
    `--D. pallasiiC01
  Stereogastrus scabratus (Fabricius 1801) [=Curculio scabratus]Z93
  Asceparnus nodipennis Schoenherr 1847Z93
  Platyapistes argentinensisML05
  Rhinoscaphus doriae Pascoe 1885Mac86
  Apocyrtus froggatti Macleay 1886Mac86
  Eutinophoea nana Pascoe 1870Mas86
  Euthyphasis acuta Pascoe 1875Mas86
  Acalanoma reducta Pascoe 1875Mas86
  Ochrometa amoena Pascoe 1870Mas86
  DermatodesMas86
    |--D. australis Boisd. 1835Mas86
    |--D. caesicollisF89
    `--D. truncatirostris Fairmaire 1889F89
  Laodice funebris Chev. 1880Mas86
  ProstomusMas86
    |--P. australis Boisduval 1835B35
    |--P. scutellaris (Fabricius 1787) [=Curculio scutellaris; incl. C. exsertus Fabricius 1801]Z93
    |--P. squalidusB35
    `--P. tenebricosusB35
  Styreus geonomoides Pascoe 1883Mas86
  ProsayleusB70
  EvasMas86
    |--E. acuminata Pascoe 1870Mas86
    |--E. argenteiventris Pascoe 1870Mas86
    |--E. crassirostris Pascoe 1870Mas86
    `--E. lineatus Pascoe 1873Mas86
  ProsauliusMas86
    |--P. ateropterusMas86
    |--P. comosus Germ. 1848Mas86
    |--P. dispar Germ. 1848Mas86
    `--P. hopeiMas86
  PrypnusMas86
    |--P. canaliculatusMas86
    |--P. fallaxMas86
    |--P. quinquenodosusMas86
    |--P. squalidus [incl. P. bidentatus]Mas86
    |--P. subtuberculatusMas86
    |--P. tenebricosusMas86
    `--P. trituberculatus Germ. 1848Mas86
  AnypotactiniPLB13
    |--Anypotactus Schoenherr 1840PLB13
    `--Polydacrys Schoenherr 1834A02
         |--P. depressifrons Boheman 1840A02
         `--P. modestus Gyll. 1834 (see below for synonymy)FS90
  CylydrorhinusW41 [CylydrorhininiPLB13]
    `--C. angulatus Guerin-Meneville 1841W41
  EntimusRD77 [EntiminiPLB13]
  EudiagoginiPLB13
    |--Eudiagogus Schoenherr 1840A02
    |--Aracanthus Say 1831A02
    |    `--A. pallidus Say 1831A02
    `--Colecerus Schoenherr 1840 [=Coleocerus Agassiz 1846; incl. Bathyris LeConte 1874]A02
         |--C. dispar (LeConte 1874)A02
         `--C. marmoratus (Horn 1876)A02
  EustyliniPLB13
  HormoriniPLB13
    |--Agasphaerops Horn 1876A02
    |    `--A. niger Horn 1876A02
    |--Hormorus Horn 1876A02
    |    `--H. undulatus (Uhler 1856)A02
    `--Lupinocolus Van Dyke 1936A02
         `--L. blaisdelli Van Dyke 1936A02
  LordopiniPLB13
  CneorhininiPLB13
    |--Philopedon Schoenherr 1826 (see below for synonymy)A02
    |    `--P. plagiatum (Schaller 1783)A02
    `--CneorhinusB35
         |--C. impressipennis Boisduval 1835B35
         `--C. stygmatipennis Boisduval 1835B35
  PhyllobiiniPLB13
  Thecesternus Say 1831 (see below for synonymy)A02
    `--T. hirsutus Pierce 1909A02
  PeriteliniPLB13
  SciaphiliniPLB13
  OttistiriniM94
    |--Ottistira fasciata Macleay 1886Mac86
    `--Maleuterpes Blackburn 1893M94
         |--*M. spinipes Blackburn 1893M94
         `--M. phytolymusB70
  PachyrhynchiniM94
  EupholiniB14
  AgraphiniA02
    |--Agraphus Say 1831A02
    |    `--A. bellicus (Say 1831)A02
    `--Paragraphus Blatchley 1916A02
         `--P. setosus Blatchley 1916A02
  AlophiniA02
  Omias Germar 1817 [incl. Mylacus Boheman 1843, Omorus Gistel 1856; Omiini]A02
    |--O. indutusDL90
    `--‘Mylacus’ rotundatusC01
  EpisomusLB20
    |--E. chlorostigmaLB20
    `--E. pauperatusP66
  OribiusLB20
  NothesLB20
  AmycterodontusZ93
  0--+--+--Cratopus [Cratopini]GC-P14
  |  |  `--TanymeciniGC-P14
  |  `--+--GeoneminiGC-P14
  |     `--Psallidium [Psallidiini]GC-P14
  |          |--P. desbrochersi Faust 1894HF03
  |          |--P. maxillosumC01
  |          `--P. separandum Desbrochers 1875HF03
  `--+--OphryastiniGC-P14
     |    |--Ophryastes Germar 1829 (see below for synonymy)A02
     |    |    `--O. sulcirostrisBM76
     |    `--Sapotes Casey 1888A02
     |         |--S. longipilis Van Dyke 1934A02
     |         `--S. puncticollis Casey 1888A02
     `--Lachnopus Schoenherr 1840GC-P14, FS90 [incl. Menoetius Dejean 1821A02, Ptilopus Schoenherr 1823A02]
          |--L. argus (Reiche 1840)A02
          |--L. campechianus Chv. 1840 [incl. L. adspersus Chv. 1880]FS90
          |--L. curvipes Fab. 1787FS90
          |--L. floridanus Horn 1876A02
          |--L. hispidus (Gyllenhal 1834)A02
          `--L. lineicollis Chv. 1880 [incl. L. foveicollis Chv. 1880, L. quadritaenia Chv. 1880]FS90

Brachyderes Schoenherr 1823 [incl. Brachylophus Fischer von Waldheim 1829, Echopus Desbrochers 1909, Eumonima Gistel 1856, Gastraspis Flach 1907, Poloposes Gistel 1848, Sulciurus Flach 1907, Thylacites Germar 1817]A02

Entiminae [Brachyderides, Brachyderinae, Entimides, Leptopiinae, Otiorhynchides, Otiorrhynchinae, Polydrosinae, Thylacitinae]

Naupactus Dejean 1821 [incl. Archopactus Heller 1921, Asynonychus Crotch 1867, Graphognathus Buchanan 1939, Mimopactus Jakel 1875]A02

Ophryastes Germar 1829 [incl. Amydrogmus Pierce 1913, Caccophryastes Sharp 1891, Dystirus Pascoe 1872, Eupagoderes Horn 1876, Tosastes Sharp 1891]A02

Pantomorus Schoenherr 1840 [incl. Antelmia Hustache 1919, Athetes Pascoe 1886, Pantopactus Jekel 1876, Pantoplanes Schoenherr 1840, Pseudeudius Voss 1934, Symmathetes Schoenherr 1847]A02

Philopedon Schoenherr 1826 [=Philopedum Agassiz 1846; incl. Dactylorhinus Tournier 1876, Dactylorrhinus Rye 1878]A02

Polydacrys modestus Gyll. 1834 [incl. P. luctuosus, P. modestus var. moestus Chv. 1880, P. modestus var. nigrosparsus Chv. 1880, P. scansorius]FS90

Strophosoma Billberg 1820 [=Strophosomum Gistel 1856, Strophosomus Schoenherr 1823; incl. Leucostrophus Flach 1907 non Rothschild & Jordan 1903, Morphostrophus Flach 1907]A02

Thecesternus Say 1831 [incl. Lithodus Germar 1834, Thicosternus Gemminger & Harold 1871; Thecesterninae, Thecesternini]A02

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A02] Anderson, R. S. 2002. Curculionidae Latreille 1802. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 722–815. CRC Press.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d’Urville. Faune entomologique de l’océan Pacifique, avec l’illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature’s gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[B70] Britton, E. B. 1970. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 495–621. Melbourne University Press.

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[DL90] Desbrochers des Loges, J. 1890. Quelques observations au sujet de la synonymie de diverses espèces du genre Scythropus et de plusieurs autres espèces du même groupe. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: ccxxv–ccxxvi.

[F89] Fairmaire, L. 1889. Coléoptères de l’intérieur de la Chine. 5e partie. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 5–84.

[FS90] Fleutiaux, E., & A. Sallé. 1890. Liste des coléoptères de la Guadeloupe et descriptions d’espèces nouvelles. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 351–484.

[GC-P14] Gillett, C. P. D. T., A. Crampton-Platt, M. J. T. N. Timmermans, B. H. Jordal, B. C. Emerson & A. P. Vogler. 2014. Bulk de novo mitogenome assembly from pooled total DNA elucidates the phylogeny of weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea). Molecular Biology and Evolution 31 (8): 2223–2237.

[HF03] Halperin, J., & J. Fremuth. 2003. Contribution to the knowledge of Curculionoidea (Coleoptera) and their host plants in Israel. Zoology in the Middle East 29: 93–100.

[LB20] Letsch, H., M. Balke, E. F. A. Toussaint & A. Riedel. 2020. Historical biogeography of the hyperdiverse hidden snout weevils (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Cryptorhynchinae). Systematic Entomology 45: 312–326.

[LE23] Li, Y.-D., M. S. Engel, E. Tihelka & C. Cai. 2023. Phylogenomics of weevils revisited: data curation and modelling compositional heterogeneity. Biology Letters 19: 20230307.

[Mac86] Macleay, W. 1886. The insects of the Fly River, New Guinea, “Coleoptera” (continued). Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 183–204.

[ML05] Marvaldi, A. E., & A. A. Lanteri. 2005. Key to higher taxa of South American weevils based on adult characters (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea). Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 78: 65–87.

[Mas86] Masters, G. 1886. Catalogue of the described Coleoptera of Australia. Part V. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (3): 585–686.

[M94] May, B. M. 1994. An introduction to the immature stages of Australian Curculionoidea. In: Zimmerman, E. C. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 2. Brentidae, Eurhynchidae, Apionidae and a chapter on immature stages by Brenda May pp. 365–728. CSIRO Australia.

[MPJ18] Mugu, S., D. Pistone & B. H. Jordal. 2018. New molecular markers resolve the phylogenetic position of the enigmatic wood-boring weevils Platypodinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Arthropod Systematics and Phylogeny 76 (1): 45–58.

[PLB13] Poinar, G., Jr, A. A. Legalov & A. E. Brown. 2013. Brachycamacina, a new subtribe of the tribe Naupactini (Coleoptera: Curculionidae Entiminae) in Dominican amber. Palaeontologica Electronica 16 (3): 23A.

[P66] Pascoe, F. P. 1866. Catalogue of longicorn Coleoptera collected in the island of Penang by James Lamb, Esq. Part I. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 222–267.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[W41] Waterhouse, G. R. 1841. Descriptions of some new coleopterous insects from the southern parts of S. America, collected by C. Darwin, Esq., and T. Bridges, Esq. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 9: 105–128.

[Z93] Zimmerman, E. C. 1993. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 3. Nanophyidae, Rhynchophoridae, Erirhinidae, Curculionidae: Amycterinae, literature consulted. CSIRO Australia.

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