Entomophthorales

Conidia of Conidiobolus coronatus, from the University of Adelaide.

Belongs within: Zoopagomycota.

The Entomophthorales are a group of fungi that are mostly parasitic on insects and arachnids, though some species of Conidiobolus are known as pathogens on humans. One of the best known species, Entomophthora muscae, is a fatal pathogen of house flies and other Diptera, with infections particularly common in spring and autumn.

Characters (from Adl et al. 2012): Filamentous, primarily without septa; sexual reproduction by thick-walled zygospore, strictly homothallic, where known; asexual reproduction by conidia formed by blastosporogenesis; conidia forcibly discharged and often form secondary conidia.

<==Entomophthorales [Ancylistales, Entomophthoromycetes]
    |  i. s.: Zygaenobia Weiser 1951KC01
    |--Completoria Lohde 1874 [Completoriaceae]KC01
    |--MeristacraceaeKC01
    |    |--Meristacrum Drechsler 1940 (see below for synonymy)KC01
    |    |--Ballocephala Drechsler 1951 [incl. Botryobolus Arnaud 1952]KC01
    |    `--Zygnemomyces Miura 1973KC01
    |--Neozygitaceae [Neozygitales, Neozygitomycetes]KC01
    |    |--Thaxterosporium Ben Ze’ev & Kenneth 1987KC01
    |    `--Neozygites Witlaczil 1885KC01
    |         `--N. floridanaK07
    |--AncylistaceaeKC01
    |    |--Ancylistes Pfitzer 1872KC01
    |    |--Macrobiotophthora Reukauf 1912KC01
    |    `--Conidiobolus Bref. 1884 [incl. Boudierella Costantin 1897 non Sacc. 1895, Delacroixia Sacc. & Syd. 1899]KC01
    |         |--C. coronatusJK06
    |         |--C. incongruusSSW01
    |         |--C. lampraugesSSW01
    |         `--C. thromboidesSSW01
    `--EntomophthoraceaeKC01
         |--Batkoa Humber 1989KC01
         |--Erynia (Nowak. ex Batko) Remaud. & Hennebert 1980KC01
         |--Furia (Batko) Humber 1989 nec Linnaeus 1758 (ICZN) nec Cuvier 1828 (ICZN)KC01
         |--Orthomyces Steinkr., Humber & Oliv. 1998KC01
         |--Orthomycotina Steinkr., Humber & Oliv. 1998KC01
         |--Tarichium Cohn 1875KC01
         |--Eryniopsis Humber 1984KC01
         |    `--E. ptycopteraeSSW01
         |--Massospora Peck 1879KC01
         |    `--M. cicadinaKC01
         |--Strongwellsea Batko & Weiser 1965KC01
         |    `--S. castransSSW01
         |--Zoophthora Batko 1964KC01
         |    `--Z. radicans [incl. Z. culisetae]SSW01
         |--Entomophthora Fresen. 1856 (see below for synonymy)KC01
         |    |--E. muscae (Cohn) Fresen 1856AB19 [=Empusa muscaeN70]
         |    `--E. schizophoraSSW01
         |--Pandora Humber 1989KC01
         |    |--P. formiceaeWD16
         |    |--P. myrmecophagaES12
         |    |--P. neoaphidisSSW01
         |    `--P. phalangicidaCM07
         `--Entomophaga Batko 1964KC01
              |--E. aulicaeSSW01
              |--E. batkoiCM07
              |--E. grylliKC01
              |--E. maimaigaSS96
              `--E. praxibuliSS96

Entomophthora Fresen. 1856 [=Empusa Cohn 1855 non Lindl. 1824; incl. Culicicola Nieuwl. 1916, Lamia Nowak. 1884, Myiophyton Lebert 1857, Triplosporium (Thaxt.) Batko 1964]KC01

Meristacrum Drechsler 1940 [incl. Pseudocoelomomyces Nam & Dubitskiĭ 1977, Tabanomyces Couch, Andrejeva et al. 1979]KC01

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AB19] Adl, S. M., D. Bass, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov, S. Agatha, C. Berney, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, P. Cárdenas, I. Čepička, L. Chistyakova, J. del Campo, M. Dunthorn, B. Edvardsen, Y. Eglit, L. Guillou, V. Hampl, A. A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, T. Y. James, A. Karnkowska, S. Karpov, E. Kim, M. Kolisko, A. Kudryavtsev, D. J. G. Lahr, E. Lara, L. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, D. G. Mann, R. Massana, E. A. D. Mitchell, C. Morrow, J. S. Park, J. W. Pawlowski, M. J. Powell, D. J. Richter, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, S. Shimano, F. W. Spiegel, G. Torruella, N. Youssef, V. Zlatogursky & Q. Zhang. 2019. Revisions to the classification, nomenclature, and diversity of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 66: 4–119.

[CM07] Cokendolpher, J. C., & P. G. Mitov. 2007. Natural enemies. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 339–373. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[ES12] Espadaler, X., & S. Santamaria. 2012. Ecto- and endoparasitic fungi on ants from the Holarctic region. Psyche 2012: 168478.

[JK06] James, T. Y., F. Kauff, C. L. Schoch, P. B. Matheny, V. Hofstetter, C. J. Cox, G. Celio, C. Gueidan, E. Fraker, J. Miadlikowska, H. T. Lumbsch, A. Rauhut, V. Reeb, A. E. Arnold, A. Amtoft, J. E. Stajich, K. Hosaka, G.-H. Sung, D. Johnson, B. O’Rourke, M. Crockett, M. Binder, J. M. Curtis, J. C. Slot, Z. Wang, A. W. Wilson, A. Schüßler, J. E. Longcore, K. O’Donnell, S. Mozley-Standridge, D. Porter, P. M. Letcher, M. J. Powell, J. W. Taylor, M. M. White, G. W. Griffith, D. R. Davies, R. A. Humber, J. B. Morton, J. Sugiyama, A. Y. Rossman, J. D. Rogers, D. H. Pfister, D. Hewitt, K. Hansen, S. Hambleton, R. A. Shoemaker, J. Kohlmeyer, B. Volkmann-Kohlmeyer, R. A. Spotts, M. Serdani, P. W. Crous, K. W. Hughes, K. Matsuura, E. Langer, G. Langer, W. A. Untereiner, R. Lücking, B. Büdel, D. M. Geiser, A. Aptroot, P. Diederich, I. Schmitt, M. Schultz, R. Yahr, D. S. Hibbett, F. Lutzoni, D. J. McLaughlin, J. W. Spatafora & R. Vilgalys. 2006. Reconstructing the early evolution of Fungi using a six-gene phylogeny. Nature 443: 818–822.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[K07] Knapp, M. 2007. Important mite crop pests in Africa. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 267–277. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[N70] Norris, K. R. 1970. General biology. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 107–140. Melbourne University Press.

[SSW01] Schüßler, A., D. Schwarzott & C. Walker. 2001. A new fungal phylum, the Glomeromycota: phylogeny and evolution. Mycological Research 105 (12): 1413–1421.

[SS96] Simberloff, D., & P. Stilling. 1996. How risky is biological control? Ecology 77 (7): 1965–1974.

[WD16] Wrzosek, M., G. Dubiel, M. Gorczak, J. Pawłowska, M. Tischer & S. Bałazy. 2016. New insights on the phylogeny and biology of the fungal ant pathogen Aegeritella. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 133: 1–7.

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