Ephydrinae

Alkali flies Ephydra hians, copyright Judy Gallagher.

Belongs within: Ephydroidea.

The Ephydrinae are a group of shore flies with lateroclinate fronto-orbital setae, and a large, cavernous subcranial cavity. The subcranial cavity is larger and the median facial area and lower facial margin are setose in members of the tribes Scatellini and Ephydrini, whereas Parydra and Dagini often have a smaller subcranial cavity and the median facial area and lower facial margin are bare (Mathis 2010).

Characters (from Mathis 2010): Fronto-orbital setae lateroclinate, usually conspicuous; median facial area and lower facial margin setose, the latter often with long setae (if not, costa short, extended to R4+5); insertions of facial series of setae convergent above; subcranial cavity large and cavernous.

<==EphydrinaeM10
| i. s.: Setacera pacificaWMV87
| Coenia palustrisWMV87, WT11
| ParacoeniaWMV87
| |--P. (Paracoenia) bisetosaWMV87
| `--P. (Thiomyia) quateiWMV87
| Calocoenia platypeltaWMV87
| Philotelma alaskenseWMV87
|--Parydra [Parydrini]M10
| |--P. (Parydra) aquilaWMV87
| |--P. fossarumM10
| |--P. nigripesM10
| `--P. (Chaetoapnaea) parasociaWMV87
|--ScatelliniM10
| |--Scatophila cribrataM10
| |--Limnellia huachucaM10
| |--Haloscatella muria [=Lamproscatella muria]M10
| |--Neoscatella vittithoraxWMV87, M83
| `--ScatellaM10
| |--S. marinensisM10
| |--S. stagnalisP09
| `--S. trisetaWMV87
|--DaginiM10
| |--Dagus rostratusM10
| |--Physemops nemorosusM10
| |--BrachydeuteraM10
| | |--B. argentataM10
| | |--B. longipesM10
| | `--B. neotropicaM10
| `--DiedropsM10
| |--D. hitchcockiM10
| |--D. roldanorumM10
| `--D. steineriM10
`--EphydriniM10
|--Dimecoenia spinosaM10
|--CirrulaM10
| |--C. austrinaM10
| `--C. giganteaWMV87
`--EphydraM10
| i. s.: E. buresiWMV87
| E. californicaRD77
| E. gracilisM10
| E. mexicanaM10
| E. millibraeM10
| E. packardiM10
|--E. (Ephydra)M10
| |--E. (E.) ripariaM10
| `--E. (E.) subopacaWMV87
|--E. (Halephydra) cinereaWMV87
`--E. (Hydropyrus) hiansM10

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[M10] Mathis, W. N. 2010. Ephydridae (shore flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1211–1233. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[P09] Pape, T. 2009. Economic importance of Diptera. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 65–77. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

[WMV87] Wirth, W. W., W. N. Mathis & J. R. Vockeroth. 1987. Ephydridae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1027–1047. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

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