Ephydroidea

Cryptochetum buccatum, copyright Andre Burgers.

Belongs within: Schizophora.
Contains: Tethinidae, Drosophilidae, Diastatidae, Gymnomyzinae, Ephydrinae, Discomyzinae, Hydrelliinae.

The Ephydroidea are a clade of mostly small flies supported by molecular data, members of which possess a single pair of proclinate fronto-orbital bristles and precoxal bridges. Members include the Ephydridae, shore flies, a group of flies with a sclerotised, often protruding face commonly associated with aquatic or semiaquatic habitats (Mathis 2010). The Braulidae, beelice, are minute, wingless flies that live clinging to bees and subsist by inducing the host to regurgitate food (Brown & Thompson 2010). The Cryptochetidae are stout, metallic blue-black flies lacking an arista on the antenna that are endoparasitic as larvae on scale insects (McAlpine & Thompson 2010).

<==Ephydroidea [Drosophiloidea]WT11
    |  i. s.: TethinidaeM90
    |--+--+--DrosophilidaeWT11
    |  |  `--+--Braulidae [Brauloidea]WT11
    |  |     |    |--MegabraulaBT10
    |  |     |    `--BraulaBT10
    |  |     |         |--B. coecaBT10
    |  |     |         |--B. hansruttneriBT10
    |  |     |         `--B. schmitziBT10
    |  |     `--Cryptochetidae [Cryptochaetidae]WT11
    |  |          |--Librella demetriusMT10
    |  |          |--Phanerochaetum tuxeniMT10
    |  |          `--CryptochetumMT10
    |  |               |  i. s.: C. iceryaeMT10
    |  |               |         C. monophlebiCM91
    |  |               |         C. yokohamaMT10
    |  |               `--C. (Cryptochetum)C-T92
    |  |                    |--C. (C.) buccatum Hendel 1933C-T92
    |  |                    `--C. (C.) jorgepastori Cadahia 1984C-T92
    |  `--+--CamillidaeWT11
    |     |    |--Katacamilla cavernicolaM87b
    |     |    |--Protocamilla succiniM87b
    |     |    |--AfrocamillaW10
    |     |    |    |--A. arizonicaW10
    |     |    |    `--A. bispinosaW10
    |     |    `--CamillaW10
    |     |         |--C. arnaudiW10
    |     |         `--C. glabraW10
    |     `--+--DiastatidaeWT11
    |        `--Curtonotidae [Cyrtonotinae]WT11
    |             |--Cyrtona albomaculaMK-SK10, M87a
    |             |--Axinota pictiventrisMK-SK10, CM91
    |             `--CurtonotumMK-SK10
    |                  |--C. angustipennisO98
    |                  |--C. anusM87a
    |                  |--C. helvumMK-SK10
    |                  `--C. vulpinumMK-SK10
    `--Ephydridae [Parydrinae]WT11
         |  i. s.: PapuamaH03
         |         Chlorichaeta tuberculosaA71
         |         Teichomyza fuscaRD77
         |         HyadininiM10
         |           |--Lytogaster granulosusM10
         |           `--HyadinaM10
         |                |--H. albovenosaM10
         |                |--H. binotataM10
         |                |--H. bulbosaM10
         |                `--H. pallipesM10
         |         Risa [Risidae]M10
         |         GymnomyzinaeM10
         |         IlytheinaeM10
         |           |--PhilygriniM10
         |           |    |--Garifuna sinuataM10
         |           |    |--Philygria debilisM10
         |           |    `--Nostima approximataM10
         |           `--IlytheiniM10
         |                |--Zeros flavipesM10
         |                `--IlytheaM10
         |                     |--I. canicepsM10
         |                     `--I. spilotaM10
         |         PelinaWMV87
         |           |--P. bilobaWMV87
         |           `--P. truncatulaWMV87
         |         Microlytogaster exteraWMV87
         |         Callinapaea aldrichiWMV87
         |         Pseudohyadina longicornisWMV87
         |         Rhinonapaea metallicaWMV87
         |         Eutaenionotum guttipennisWMV87
         |         AxystaWMV87
         |         RhynchopsilopaO98
         |--EphydrinaeWT11
         `--+--DiscomyzinaeWT11
            `--HydrelliinaeWT11

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BT10] Brown, B. V., & F. C. Thompson. 2010. Braulidae (beelice). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1097–1099. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[C-T92] Carles-Tolrá, M. 1992. New and interesting records of Diptera Acalyptrata from Spain. Part I: Acartophthalmidae, Opomyzidae, Anthomyzidae, Asteiidae, Carnidae, Tethinidae, Milichiidae and Cryptochetidae. Bull. Annls Soc. R. Belge Ent. 128: 343–353.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[MK-SK10] Marshall, S. A., A. H. Kirk-Spriggs & J. Klymko. 2010. Curtonotidae (hunchbacked flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1189–1192. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[M10] Mathis, W. N. 2010. Ephydridae (shore flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1211–1233. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[M87a] McAlpine, J. F. 1987a. Curtonotidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1007–1010. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[M87b] McAlpine, J. F. 1987b. Camillidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1023–1025. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211–1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[MT10] McAlpine, J. F., & F. C. Thompson. 2010. Cryptochetidae (cryptochetid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1121–1123. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[W10] Wheeler, T. A. 2010. Camillidae (camillid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1193–1195. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

[WMV87] Wirth, W. W., W. N. Mathis & J. R. Vockeroth. 1987. Ephydridae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1027–1047. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

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