Common twayblade Listera ovata, copyright Orchi.

Belongs within: Monandrae.
Contains: Corallorhizinae, Pleurothallidinae, Dendrobieae, Gastrodieae, Coelogyninae, Arethuseae, Malaxideae, Cymbidieae, Epidendreae, Eriinae, Vandeae.

The Epidendroideae are a group of mostly epiphytic orchids in which roots bear a multi-layered, spongy epidermis (the velamen), and floral abscission often occurs (Freudenstein & Rasmussen 1999). A subgroup of forms with the pollinium bearing a tegula, a strap formed from the epidermis of the rostellum, has sometimes been recognised as a distinct subfamily Vandoideae but may not be monophyletic.

Epidendroideae [Coelogyneae, Limodorinae, Neottioideae, Pleuranthae, Sympodiales, Vandoideae]
    |--+--Palmorchideae [Palmorchidinae]RG07
    |  |    |--PalmorchisRG07
    |  |    `--DiceratosteleA86
    |  `--+--EpipactisRG07
    |     |    |--E. giganteaH93
    |     |    `--E. helleborineDS04
    |     `--Listera [Listerinae]RG07
    |          |--L. auriculataV72
    |          |--L. caurinaH93
    |          |--L. convallarioidesH93
    |          |--L. cordataT30
    |          |--L. kuanshanensisCP02
    |          |--L. ovataTG88
    |          `--L. × veltmanii [L. auriculata × L. convallarioides]V72
    `--+--Cephalanthera austiniaeFR99, H93 [=Eburophyton austiniaeH93]
       `--+--Tropidioideae [Tropidieae, Tropidiinae]FR99
          |    |--CorymborkisFR99
          |    `--TropidiaFR99
          |         |--T. curculigoidesP03
          |         `--T. effusaFR99
             |  |--EpipogieaeA86
             |  |    |--Epipogium roseum (Don) Lindley 1857FR99, SBY02 (see below for synonymy)
             |  |    `--StereosandraA86
             |  `--SobraliinaeA86
             |       |--SobraliaRG07
             |       |--Elleanthus tetrogeitonA86, RJ11
             |       |--SertiferaA86
             |       `--XerorchisA86
                |    |--Glomera erythrosmaFR99, P03
                |    |--AglossorhynchaA86
                |    |--GlossorhynchaA86
                |    |--IschnocentrumA86
                |    |--SepalosiphonA86
                |    `--Earina Lindl. 1834A86, ME70
                |         |--*E. mucronata Lindl. 1834 [incl. E. aestivalis Cheesem. 1919, E. quadrilobata Col. 1883]ME70
                |         `--E. autumnalis (Forst. f.) Hook. f. 1853ME70 (see below for synonymy)
                   |  `--+--Wullschlaegelia [Wullschlaegelieae]RG07
                   |     `--ArethuseaeEN20
                            |  `--EpidendreaeEN20
                                  |    |--EriinaeRG07
                                  |    `--PodochilinaeC03
                                  |         |--Podochilus gracilisC03, P03
                                  |         |--PseuderiaC03
                                  |         |--ChitonochilusA86
                                  |         |--CyphochilusA86
                                  |         `--PoaephyllumA86
                                     |    |--TelipogonFR99
                                     |    |--DipterosteleA86
                                     |    |--StellilabiumA86
                                     |    `--TrichocerosA86
                                        `--Polystachyeae [Polystachyinae]A86
                                                  |--P. luteolaC55
                                                  `--P. zeylanica [=Dendrobium polystachyum]C55
Epidendroideae incertae sedis:
  Limodorum abortivumA86, H91
  Thaia [Thaieae]A86
  Neottia nidus-avisR02
  Cryptarrhena [Cryptarrheneae]FR99
    |--Thelasis pygmaeaFR99

Earina autumnalis (Forst. f.) Hook. f. 1853ME70 [=Epidendrum autumnale Forst. f. 1786ME70, Cymbidium autumnale Swartz 1799C06; incl. Ea. alba Col. 1886ME70, Ea. suaveolens Lindl. 1843ME70]

Epipogium roseum (Don) Lindley 1857FR99, SBY02 [=Limodorum roseum Don 1825SBY02, Galera rosea Bl. 1825SBY02; incl. Epipogium nutans Reichenbach 1890SBY02]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A86] Atwood, J. T. 1986. The size of the Orchidaceae and the systematic distribution of epiphytic orchids. Selbyana 9: 171–186.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CP02] Chung, S.-W., & C.-I. Peng. 2002. Senecio kuanshanensis (Asteraceae), a new species from southern Taiwan. Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica 43: 155–159.

[C03] Clements, M. A. 2003. Molecular phylogenetic systematics in the Dendrobiinae (Orchidaceae), with emphasis on Dendrobium section Pedilonum. Telopea 10 (1): 247–298.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467–510.

[EN20] Eggli, U., & R. Nyffeler (eds) 2020. Illustrated Handbook of Succulent Plants: Monocotyledons 2nd ed. Springer.

[FR99] Freudenstein, J. V., & F. N. Rasmussen. 1999. What does morphology tell us about orchid relationships?—a cladistic analysis. American Journal of Botany 86: 225–248.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[ME70] Moore, L. B., & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[P03] Partomihardjo, T. 2003. Colonisation of orchids on the Krakatau Islands. Telopea 10 (1): 299–310.

[RG07] Ramírez, S. R., B. Gravendeel, R. B. Singer, C. R. Marshall & N. E. Pierce. 2007. Dating the origin of the Orchidaceae from a fossil orchid with its pollinator. Nature 448: 1042–1045.

[R02] Raven, J. A. 2002. Selection pressures on stomatal evolution. New Phytologist 153: 371–386.

[RJ11] Rising, J. D., A. Jaramillo, J. L. Copete, P. G. Ryan & S. C. Madge. 2011. Family Emberizidae (buntings and New World sparrows). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 428–683. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[SBY02] Sardesai, M. M., M. P. Bachulkar & S. R. Yadav. 2002. Additions to the orchid flora of Maharashtra. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 564–566.

[TG88] Tepfer, D., A. Goldmann, N. Pamboukdjian, M. Maille, A. Lepingle, D. Chevalier, J. Dénarié & C. Rosenberg. 1988. A plasmid of Rhizobium meliloti 41 encodes catabolism of two compounds from root exudate of Calystegium sepium. Journal of Bacteriology 170 (3): 1153–1161.

[V72] Voss, E. G. 1972. Michigan Flora. Part I. Gymnosperms and Monocots. Cranbrook Institute of Science and University of Michigan Herbarium.

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