Epitoniidae

Precious wentletrap Epitonium scalare, copyright James St. John.
Belongs within: Hypsogastropoda.
Contains: Epitonium (Nitidiscala).

The Epitoniidae are a group of carnivorous marine gastropods that prey on cnidarians. Many are small with porcelain-like, strongly ornamented shells. However, recent studies have confirmed that the violet snails (Janthina and related species), planktic species with more globose shells that float using a raft of air bubbles, are also derived epitoniids.

<==Epitoniidae (see below for synonymy)
|–Ferminoscala pseudoleroyi (Maury 1925) [incl. Scalina gardnerae Olsson 1967] BT78
|–Iodes Mörch 1860 [Iodeidae] BR05
|–Alexania Strand 1928 [=Alexandria Tomlin 1926 non Pfeiffer 1881, Tomlinula Strand 1932; incl. Habea Kuroda 1943] RH65
|    |–*A. natalensis (Tomlin 1926) [=*Alexandria natalensis, *Tomlinula natalensis] RH65
|    |–‘Habea’ callizona Habe 1961 RH65
|    `–*Habea’ inazawai Kuroda 1943
|–Opaliopsis BR17
|–Proacirsa inornata (Terquem & Jourdy 1869) TTE93
|–Hartungia typica Bronn 1861 TTE93
|–Eccliseogyra B91
|–Iphitus tuberculatus B91
|–Cycloscala hyalina (Sowerby 1844) B91
|–Acrilla Adams 1860 [Acrillinae] BR05
|    `–*A. acuminata (Sowerby 1844) [=Scalaria acuminata] BR17
|–Clathroscala de Boury 1890 [Clathroscalinae] BR05
|    `–*C. cancellata (Brocchi 1814) [=Turbo cancellatus] BR17
|–Gyroscala de Boury 1887 [Gyroscalinae] BR05
|    `–*G. commutata (Monterosato 1877) [=Scalaria commutata] BR17
|–Papyriscala de Boury 1909 [Papyriscalinae] BR05
|    `–*P. latifasciata (Sowerby 1874) [=Scalaria latifasciata] BR17
|–Lioatlanta Dybowski & Grochmalicki 1920 [Lioatlantinae] BR05
|    `–*L. semidisjuncta (Jeffreys 1884) [=Scalaria semidisjuncta] BR17
|–Stenacme Pilsbry 1945 [Stenacmidae] BR05
|    `–*S. floridana Pilsbry 1945 BR17
|–Granuliscala Boury 1909 WG71
|    `–G. granosa Quoy & Gaimard 1834 WG71
|–Nystiella Clench & Turner 1952 BR17, BR05 [Nystiellinae]
|    |–*N. opalina (Dall 1927) [=Epitonium opalinum] BR17
|    `–N. concava (Dall 1889) B91
|–Tenuiscala F27a
|    |–T. parvicostata (Marshall 1917) [=Epitonium parvicostata] F27a
|    `–T. simplex (Marshall 1917) [=Epitonium simplex] F27a
|–Funiscala de Boury 1891 P61
|    |–*F. speyeri [=Scalaria speyeri] P61
|    `–F. maxwelli Finlay 1930 P61
|–Notacirsa F27a
|    |–*N. oamarutica [=Turbonilla oamarutica] F27a
|    |–N. elata A27
|    `–‘Bittium oamaruticum’ Bartrum 1919 (preoc.; n. d.) F27a
|–Stenorhytis P12
|    |–S. expansa (Conrad 1842) P12
|    |–S. pachypleura (Conrad 1841) P12
|    `–S. pernobilis (Fischer & Bernardi 1857) A88
|–Murdochella Finlay 1927 P61
|    |–*M. levifoliata (Murdoch & Suter 1906) [=Scala levifoliata] P61
|    |–M. alacer Finlay 1927 P61
|    |–M. superlata Finlay 1930 P61
|    `–M. tertia Finlay 1930 P61
|–Recluzia Petit de la Saussaye 1853 [Recluziidae] BR05
|    |–*R. jehennei Petit de la Saussaye 1853 BR17
|    |–R. johnii (Holten 1803) A63 [=Helix johnii H09]
|    |–R. lutea Bennett 1840 (see below for synonymy) A63
|    `–R. rollandiana Petit 1853 A63
|–Nodiscala de Boury 1890 P61
|    |–*N. bicarinata (Sowerby 1844) P61, H09 [=Scalaria bicarinata P61, Epitonium bicarinatum H09]
|    |–N. ahiparana Powell 1930 P61
|    |–N. retiporosa (Carpenter 1864) [=Epitonium (Nodiscala) retiporosum] O27
|    |–N. spongiosa (Carpenter 1864) [=Opalia spongiosa, Epitonium (Nodiscala) spongiosum] O27
|    `–N. zelandica Finlay 1930 P61
|–Acirsa Mörch 1857 O27, BR05 [Acirsidae, Acirsinae]
|    |–*A. borealis (Lyell 1841) BR17 (see below for synonymy)
|    |     |–A. b. borealis O27
|    |     `–A. b. ochotensis (Middendorff 1849) O27 (see below for synonymy)
|    |–A. menesthoides C64
|    `–A. wadei B91
|–Clathrus Oken 1815 non Micheli ex L. 1801 (ICBN) BR17 [=Scala Mörch 1852 BR05, BR17]
|    |–*C. clathrus (Linnaeus 1758) BR17 [=Turbo clathrus BR17, *Scala clathrus BR17, T. (Scalaria) clathrus G20]
|    |–‘Scala’ australis O27
|    |–‘Scala’ dentiscalpium C60
|    |–‘Scala’ granosa [=Turritella granosa] O27
|    |–C. harmeri (de Boury in Harmer 1918) [=Scala (Clathrus) harmeri] F27b
|    |–‘Scala’ magellanica O27
|    |–‘Scala’ ralphi (de Boury 1913) [=Scalaria pachypleura Tate 1890 non Conrad 1842] F27b
|    `–‘Scala’ turtonis [incl. S. tenuicostata] F27b
|–Amaea BT78
|    |  i. s.: A. africana Bouchet & Tillier 1978 BT78
|    |         A. brunneopicta (Dall 1896) BT78
|    |         A. elegantissima (Deshayes 1861) BT78
|    |         A. guineense Bouchet & Tillier 1978 BT78
|    |         A. mitchelli Dall 1896 BT78
|    |         A. pellati (de Raincourt & Munier-Chalmas 1863) [incl. Acrilla amoena var. eosubcancellata] BT78
|    |         A. phoenix (de Boury 1912) BT78
|    |         A. prunicola (Martin 1904) P12
|    |         A. reticulata (Martin 1904) P12
|    |         A. subreticula (d’Orbigny 1852) BT78
|    `–A. (Scalina) BC01
|         |–A. (S.) deroyae DuShane 1970 BC01
|         `–A. (S.) tehuanarum DuShane & McLean 1968 BC01
|–Janthina Röding 1798 BR17, BR05 [=Ianthina (l. c.) BR05; Ianthinea, Janthininae]
|    |  i. s.: J. ceruleata Reeve 1858 O27
|    |         J. decollata [=Ianthella decollata] C64
|    |         J. fragilis [incl. Ianthina striulata] C64
|    |         J. prolongata C64
|    |         J. rotundata O01
|    |         J. striolata C64
|    |–J. (Janthina) P61
|    |    |–*J. (J.) janthina (Linnaeus 1758) P61, H09 [=Helix janthina H09]
|    |    |–J. (J.) communis O27
|    |    `–J. (J.) violacea Röding 1798 P61, BR17
|    |–J. (Iodina Moerch 1860) P61
|    |    `–J. (*I.) exigua Lamarck 1822 P61
|    `–J. (Violetta Iredale 1929) P61
|         `–J. (*V.) globosa Swainson 1822 P61
|–Cirsotrema Mörch 1852 [Cirsotrematinae, Cirsotreminae] DK08
|    |  i. s.: C. angulata Marwick 1926 F27a
|    |         C. caelicola Finlay 1926 F27a
|    |         C. calvertensis (Martin 1904) P12
|    |         C. karinae (Usticke 1969) [=Opalia karinae] BC01
|    |         C. kieneri Tapparone-Canefri 1876 WG71 [=Epitonium kieneri H09]
|    |         C. lyrata A27
|    |–C. (Cirsotrema) P61
|    |    |–*C. varicosa (Lamarck 1822) P61, WG71 [=Scalaria varicosa P61, Epitonium varicosum H09]
|    |    |–C. (C.) montereyense (Dall 1907) [=Epitonium (C.) montereyense] O27
|    |    |–C. (C.) pleiophylla (Tate 1890) [=Scalaria (C.) pleiophylla] DK08
|    |    |–C. (C.) togatum (Hertlein & Strong 1951) [=Epitonium (C.) togatum] PP78
|    |    |–C. (C.) vulpinum (Hinds 1844) [=Epitonium (C.) vulpinum] PP78
|    |    `–C. (C.) zelebori (Dunker 1866) P61
|    `–C. (Tioria Marwick 1928) P61
|         |–C. (*T.) youngi P61
|         `–C. (T.) forresti Dell 1956 P61
|–Opalia Adams & Adams 1853 [Opaliinae] BR05
|    |  i. s.: O. bullata Carpenter 1864 C64
|    |         O. crenata (Linnaeus 1758) BT78
|    |         O. diadema [=Cirsotrema diadema] C64
|    |         O. funiculata [=Cirsotrema funiculata] C64
|    |         O. gaini (deBoury in Lamy 1923) BT78
|    |         O. hellenica (Forbes 1844) BT78
|    |         O. insculpta C64
|    |         O. ochotensis C64
|    |         O. retiporosa Carpenter 1864 C64
|    |         O. tremperi Bartsch 1927 O27
|    |–O. (Opalia) BC01
|    |    |–*O. (O.) australis (Lamarck 1822) [=Scalaria australis] BR17
|    |    |–O. (O.) borealis Keep 1881 [incl. O. chacei Strong 1937] BC01
|    |    |–O. (O.) burchorum DuShane 1988 BC01
|    |    |–O. (O.) evicta (De Boury 1919) [=Epitonium (O.) evictum, Scalaria pluricostata Or. 1913 (preoc.)] O27
|    |    `–O. (O.) wroblewskii (Mörch 1876) [=Scala wroblewskii, Epitonium (O.) wroblewskii] O27
|    `–O. (Dentiscala De Boury 1886) BC01, O27
|         |–O. (D.) crenatoides (Carpenter 1864) PP78
|         |–‘Epitonium’ (D.) crenimarginatum Dall 1917 O27
|         |–‘Epitonium’ (D.) nesioticum Dall 1917 O27
|         `–O. (D.) paulula DuShane 1974 BC01
|–Scalaria Lamarck 1801 BR05
|    |–S. atomus Smith 1890 BT78
|    |–S. bellastriata Carpenter 1864 C64
|    |–S. bezanconi [=Cancellaria bezanconi nec de Raincourt 1884 nec Morlet 1885] PH90
|    |–S. boettgeri von Maltzan 1885 BT78
|    |–S. brownii H86
|    |–S. clathratula N79
|    |–S. cochlea Sowerby 1844 BT78
|    |–S. commoda Smith 1890 BT78
|    |–S. communis N79
|    |–S. confusa Smith 1890 BT78
|    |–S. conica Lamarck 1801 BR17
|    |–S. crebricostata Carpenter 1864 C64
|    |–S. crenata PP64
|    |–S. cumingii Cpr. 1856 C64
|    |–S. elenensis [incl. S. raricosta] C64
|    |–S. fragilis Hanley 1842 BT78
|    |–S. fusca Sowerby 1844 BT78
|    |–S. gracilis C64
|    |–S. groenlandica [=Turbo clathrus groenlandicus] N79
|    |–S. lyrata H86
|    |–S. marginata H86
|    |–S. mellisii Smith 1890 BT78
|    |–S. multistriata Say 1825 BT78
|    |–S. ornata Baily 1855 F27b
|    |–S. pachypleura Conrad 1842 F27b
|    |–S. pachygyra Locard 1896 BT78
|    |–S. pacifica Wilckens 1922 [=Cirsostrema pacifica] F27a
|    |–S. planicostata C64
|    |–S. pretiosa C64
|    |–S. regularis C64
|    |–S. rotunda H86
|    |–S. sanctaehelenae Smith 1890 BT78
|    |–S. senegalensis von Maltzan 1885 BT78
|    |–S. smithii Tryon 1887 [=Scala miranda Smith 1871 (preoc.)] BT78
|    |–S. tiara C64
|    |–S. trevelyana N79
|    |–S. trochiformis von Maltzan 1885 BT78
|    `–S. turtonae N79
`–Epitonium Röding 1798 BR05
|  i. s.: E. aculeatum (Sowerby 1844) [=Scalaria aculeata] H09
|         E. albidum RL04
|         E. auritum (Sowerby 1844) [=Scalaria aurita] H09
|         E. candidissimum (Monterosato 1877) BT78
|         E. castum (Sowerby 1873) [=Scalaria casta] H09
|         E. commutatum (Monterosato 1877) BT78
|         E. costulatum (Kiener 1839) D88
|         E. crenatoides Carpenter 1864 O27
|         E. denticulatum (Sowerby 1844) [=Scalaria denticulata] H09
|         E. dentiscalpium (Watson 1883) [=Scalaria dentiscalpia] H09
|         E. eleutherium Pilsbry & Olsson 1941 BT78
|         E. formosissimum B91
|         E. grossicostatum (Nyst 1873) BT78
|         E. hyalinum (Sowerby 1844) [=Scalaria hyalina] H09
|         E. imperialis (Sowerby 1844) WG71
|         E. irregulare (Sowerby 1844) [=Scalaris irregularis] H09
|         E. minora HS01
|         E. muricatum (Kiener 1839) [=Scalaria muricata] H09
|         E. neglecta Adams & Reeve 1850 WG71
|         E. obliquum (Sowerby 1844) [=Scalaria obliqua] H09
|         E. pallasi Kiener 1838 WG71
|         E. perplexa Pease 1860 WG71
|         E. pulchellum (Bivona 1832) BT78
|         E. replicatum (Sowerby 1844) [=Scalaria replicata] H09
|         E. revolutum (Hedley 1899) [=Scalaria revoluta] H09
|         E. rubrolineatum (Sowerby 1844) [=Scalaria rubrolineata] H09
|         E. subauriculatum (Souverbie 1866) [=Scalaria subauriculata] H09
|         E. subnudatum (Sowerby 1874) [=Scalaria subnudata] H09
|         E. tenuicostatum (Sowerby 1844) [=Scalaria tenuicostata] H09
|         E. ‘tenuicostatum’ von Martens 1882 non Scalaria tenuicostata Sowerby 1844 BT78
|         E. tenuispiralis Marshall 1919 F27a
|         E. tricinctum Marshall 1918 F27a
|         E. turriculum (Sowerby 1844) [=Scalaria turricula] H09
|         E. ulu Pilsbry 1921 D88
|         E. vestale (Hinds 1843) [=Scalaria vestalis] H09
|–E. (Epitonium) RL04
|    |–*E. (E.) scalare (Linnaeus 1758) RL04 [=Turbo scalaris RL04, T. (Scalaria) scalaris G20]
|    |–E. (E.) hancocki DuShane 1970 [=E. (Nitidiscala) hancocki] BC01
|    |–E. (E.) hemmesi DuShane 1988 BC01
|    |–E. (E.) krebsii (Mörch 1874) [=Scala krebsii] MP65
|    `–E. (E.) thorssoni DuShane 1988 BC01
|–E. (Acutiscala de Boury 1909) P61
|    `–E. (*A.) philippinarum (Sowerby 1844) P61 [=Scalaria philippinarum H09]
|–E. (Asperiscala De Boury 1909) BC01
|    |–E. (A.) apiculatum (Dall 1889) [=Scala apiculata] MP65
|    |–E. (A.) arnoldi Dall 1917 O27
|    |–E. (A.) bellastriatum Carpenter 1864 O27
|    |–E. (A.) championi MP65
|    |–E. (A.) cookeanum Dall 1917 O27
|    |–E. (A.) goldsmithi (DuShane 1988) [=Asperiscala goldsmithi] BC01
|    |–E. (A.) lagunarum Dall 1917 O27
|    `–E. (A.) lowei Dall 1906 O27
|–E. (Boreoscala Kobelt 1902) O27
|    `–E. (B.) greenlandicum Perry 1811 [=Scala groenlandica] O27
|–E. (Crisposcala De Boury 1909) O27
|    |–E. (C.) acrostephanum Dall 1908 O27
|    |–E. (C.) catalinae Dall 1908 O27
|    |–E. (C.) regum Dall 1917 O27
|    `–E. (C.) tabulatum Dall 1917 O27
|–E. (Globiscala De Boury 1909) O27
|    |–E. (G.) barbarinum Dall 1919 O27
|    |–E. (G.) bullatum (Sowerby 1844) (see below for synonymy) D88
|    |–E. (G.) orcuttianum Dall 1917 O27
|    `–E. (G.) zephyrium Dall 1917 O27
|–E. (Hirtoscala Monterosato 1890) BC01
|    |–E. (H.) fractum Dall 1927 [incl. E. (Epitonium) mauryi Tursch & Pierret 1964] BC01
|    |–E. (H.) reflexum (Carpenter 1856) PP78
|    `–E. (H.) shyorum DuShane & McLean 1968 BC01
|–E. (Hyaloscala de Boury 1889) BC01
|    |–E. (*H.) clathratulum P61
|    |–E. (H.) arcanum DuShane 1979 [=E. (Nitidiscala) arcanum] BC01
|    |–E. (H.) bucknilli Powell 1924 P61
|    |–E. (H.) jukesianum (Forbes 1852) P61
|    |–E. (H.) tinctum (Carpenter 1865) BC01 (see below for synonymy)
|    `–E. (H.) worsfoldi Robertson 1994 BC01
|–E. (Laeviscala de Boury 1909) BC01
|    `–E. (L.) luceo (Dushane 1988) [=Laeviscala luceo] BC01
|–E. (Limiscala de Boury 1909) BC01
|    |–E. (*L.) lyra (Sowerby 1844) P61, H09 [=Scalaria lyra H09]
|    |–E. (L.) billeeanum (DuShane & Bratcher 1965) RL04 (see below for synonymy)
|    |–E. (L.) macleani DuShane 1970 [=E. (Asperiscala) macleani] BC01
|    |–E. (L.) plymanthi Robertson 1994 BC01
|    `–E. (L.) tenellum (Hutton 1885) P61
|–E. (Nitidiscala) BC01
|–E. (Parviscala) striatissimum (Monterosato 1878) RL04
`–E. (Sodaliscala de Boury 1909) BC01
|–E. (S.) dendrophylliae Bouchet & Warén 1986 RL04
`–E. (S.) textimattum DuShane 1977 [=E. (Asperiscala) textimattum] BC01

Nomina nuda: Epitonium atlanticum de Boury in Tomlin & Shackleford 1914 BT78
Epitonium tenuipunctatum de Boury in Tomlin & Shackleford 1914 BT78

*Acirsa borealis (Lyell 1841) BR17 [=Scalaria borealis BR17, Epitonium (Acirsa) boreale O27, Mesalia borealis J64, Scala (A.) borealis O27; incl. Scala eschrichtii O27, Scalaria eschrichti J64, Scalaria undulata J64]

Acirsa borealis ochotensis (Middendorff 1849) O27 [=Scala ochotensis O27, Epitonium boreale ochotense O27, Scalaria ochotensis C64]

Epitoniidae [Epitoniacea, Epitoniida, Epitoniinae, Epitonioidea, Janthinidae, Janthiniformes, Janthinoidea, Janthinoidei, Nystiellidae, Scalacea, Scalariana, Scalariidae, Scalidae]

Epitonium (Globiscala) bullatum (Sowerby 1844) [incl. Globiscala kashiwajimensis Azuma 1962, Scala (G.) papyracea de Boury 1912, Epitonium (G.) woolacottae Kerslake 1958] D88

Epitonium (Hyaloscala) tinctum (Carpenter 1865) BC01 [=Scalaria indianorum tincta O27, E. (Nitidiscala) tinctum O27; incl. E. (Nitidoscala [l. c.]) tinctum bormanni Strong 1941 (nom. inv.) BC01]

Epitonium (Limiscala) billeeanum (DuShane & Bratcher 1965) RL04 [=Scalina billeeana BC01, Alora billeeana RL04, Asperiscala billeeana RL04]

Recluzia lutea Bennett 1840 [incl. R. erythraea Jickeli 1882, R. hargravesi Cox 1870, R. montouzieri Souverbie 1872, R. turrita Philippi 1848] A63

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A63] Abbott, R. T. 1963. The janthinid genus Recluzia in the western Atlantic. Nautilus 76 (4): 151.

[A27] Allan, R. S. 1927. The geology and palaeontology of the Lower Waihao Basin, south Canterbury, New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 265–309.

[A88] Askew, T. M. 1988. A new species of pleurotomariid gastropod from the western Atlantic. Nautilus 102 (3): 89–91.

[B91] Bandel, K. 1991. Über triassische “Loxonematoidea” und ihre Beziehungen zu rezenten und paläozoischen Schnecken. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 65 (3–4): 239–268.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BT78] Bouchet, P., & S. Tillier. 1978. Two new giant epitoniids (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from West Africa. Veliger 20 (4): 345–348.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[C60] Cox, L. R. 1960. Gastropoda: general characteristics of Gastropoda. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I84–I169. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[DK08] Darragh, T. A., & G. W. Kendrick. 2008. Silicified Eocene molluscs from the Lower Murchison district, Southern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (3): 217–246.

[D88] DuShane, H. 1988. Geographical distribution of some Epitoniidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) associated with fungiid corals. Nautilus 102 (1): 30–35.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[H86] Hutton, F. W. 1886. The Mollusca of the Pareora and Oamaru systems of New Zealand. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 205–237.

[J64] Jeffreys, J. G. 1864. The Upper Tertiary fossils at Uddevalla, in Sweden. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33 (Notices and Abstracts): 73–79.

[MP65] Merrill, A. S., & R. E. Petit. 1965. Mollusks new to South Carolina. Nautilus 79 (2): 58–66.

[N79] Norman, A. M. 1879. The Mollusca of the fiords near Bergen, Norway. Journal of Conchology 2: 8–77.

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Last updated: 16 September 2021.

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