Equisetopsida

Rough horsetail Equisetum hyemale, copyright Liné1.

Belongs within: Monilophyta.
Contains: Equisetum.

The Equisetopsida includes the modern horsetails, Equisetum, and their fossil relatives. Members of this group have whorled leaves, and most have a eustele stem structure with a hollow pith surrounded by vascular bundles (Doyle 1998).

Equisetopsida [Equisetophyta, Sphenophyta, Sphenophytae, Sphenopsida]
| i. s.: Equisetires keuperianaW70
|--Pseudobornia [Pseudoborniaceae, Pseudoborniales]C93
| `--P. ursina Nathorst 1902C93
|--Bowmanitales [Sphenophyllales]C93
| |--Eviostachya [Eviostachyaceae]C93
| | `--E. hoegii Stockmans 1948C93
| |--Cheirostrobus [Cheirostrobaceae]C93
| | `--C. pettycurensis Scott 1898C93
| `--BowmanitaceaeC93
| |--BowmanitesC93
| | |--B. simonii Remy 1961C93
| | `--B. tumbana Remy & Spassov 1959C93
| `--Sphenophyllum Brongniart 1822C93, SP12
| |--S. angustifoliumG31
| |--S. antiquumA38
| |--S. cuneifoliumA38
| |--S. emarginatumG31
| |--S. erosumG31
| |--S. macrophyllumG31
| |--S. majusG31
| |--S. oblongifoliumG31
| |--S. saxifragaefoliumG31
| |--S. schlotheimiG31
| |--S. sinocoreanumC93
| |--S. speciosaG31
| |--S. subtenerrimum Nathorst 1920C93
| `--S. thoniiG31
`--EquisetalesD98
| i. s.: CalamitesD98
| |--C. cistiiG31
| |--C. gigasG31
| |--C. kutorgaeG31
| `--C. suckowiG31
|--Gondwanostachys [Gondwanostachyaceae]C93
| `--G. australis (Brongniart) Meyen 1969C93
|--ArchaeocalamitaceaeC93
| |--Archaeocalamites radiatusD98, F71 [=Calamites radiatusF71]
| `--Protocalamostachys pettycurensis Chaphekar 1963C93
|--Calamostachys [Calamostachyaceae, Calamostachyales]C93
| |--C. dumasii (Zeiller) Jongmans 1911C93
| |--C. germanicaG31
| |--C. grandeuryi (Renault) Jongmans 1911C93
| `--C. polystachya (Sternberg) Weiss 1876)C93
|--EquisetaceaeC93
| |--EquisetumCD07
| |--Neocalamostachys pedunculatus Kon’no 1962C93
| `--NeocalamitesC93
| |--N. fukienensisG31
| |--N. haerensisG31
| |--N. merianiG31
| |--N. nathorstiHH09
| `--N. superpermicus Kon’no 1973C93
|--EchinostachyaceaeC93
| |--EchinostachysC93
| | |--E. cylindrica Schimper & Mougeot 1844C93
| | `--E. oblonga Brongniart 1828C93
| `--SchizoneuraC93
| |--S. australis Etheridge 1893F71
| |--S. carrereiG31
| |--S. heianensisG31
| `--S. paradoxa Schimper & Mougeot 1844C93
`--TchernoviaceaeC93
|--Tchernovia ungensis Gorelova 1962C93
|--Sendersonia matura Meyen & Menshikova 1983C93
|--NeokoretrophyllitesC93
`--PhyllothecaC93
|--P. australisF71
|--P. deliquescensC93
|--P. equisetoidesG31
|--P. robustaF71
`--P. wonthaggiensis [=Equisetites wonthaggiensis]KDD98

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A38] Alcock, F. J. 1938. Geology of Saint John region, New Brunswick. Geological Survey of Canada Memoir 216: 1–65.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1–E44.

[C93] Cleal, C. J. 1993. Pteridophyta. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 779–794. Chapman & Hall: London.

[D98] Doyle, J. A. 1998. Phylogeny of vascular plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 567–599.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[G31] Grabau, A. W. 1931. The Permian of Mongolia: A report on the Permian fauna of the Jisu Honguer limestone of Mongolia and its relations to the Permian of other parts of the world. American Museum of Natural History: New York.

[HH09] Hu, D., L. Hou, L. Zhang & X. Xu. 2009. A pre-Archaeopteryx troodontid theropod from China with long feathers on the metatarsus. Nature 461: 640–643.

[KDD98] Krassilov, V. A., D. L. Dilcher & J. G. Douglas. 1998. New ephedroid plant from the Lower Cretaceous Koonwarra fossil bed, Victoria, Australia. Alcheringa 22 (2): 123–133.

[SP12] Steemans, P., E. Petus, P. Breuer, P. Mauller-Mendlowicz & P. Gerrienne. 2012. Palaeozoic innovations in the micro- and megafossil plant record: from the earliest plant spores to the earliest seeds. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 437–477. Springer.

[W70] Wills, L. J. 1970. The Triassic succession in the central Midlands in its regional setting. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 126: 225–283.

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