Erebidae

Cotton looper moth Anomis flava, copyright Alexey Yakovlev.

Belongs within: Noctuoidea.
Contains: Comarchis, Sorocostia, Hypeninae, Lymantriinae, Calpinae, Panopodini, Erebinae, Toxocampinae, Scolecocampinae, Boletobiinae, Herminiinae, Hypsa, Lithosiini, Arctiini, Syntomini.

The Erebidae, as recognised by Zahiri et al. (2011), are a diverse clade of noctuoid moths united by molecular phylogenetic analysis. Members of this clade have historically been divided between a number of families with many being previously included in the Noctuidae. As such, the erebids include a large proportion of what have historically been called the ‘quadrifine’ noctuoids, with a strong MA2 vein present in the hind wing (Zahiri et al. 2011).

Among subgroups previously treated as distinct families are the Arctiinae, tiger moths and related species, a diverse group of often aposematically coloured moths. Most arctiines possess a tymbal organ on the thorax that produces ultrasonic clicks; these clicks are thought to disrupt bat echolocation (Nielsen & Common 1991). The Aganainae are similarly aposematic and feed on toxic cardenolide-producing plants of the Apocynaceae and Moraceae. A clade of Arctiinae, Aganainae and Herminiinae is characterised by the possession of a pre-spiracular counter-tympanic hood, a swollen metepimeron ventral to pocket IV, and modified foretibia in the males of most genera (Zahiri et al. 2011). The Anobini are tropical species with triangular fore wings that often have a rather sinuate distal margin extending back from the falcate apex. The Rivulinae have unlashed eyes and short labial palps (Nielsen & Common 1991). The Scoliopterygini are a Holarctic group united by features of the genitalia, including separated bullae, a sclerotised scaphium but only lightly sclerotised subscaphium, a dorsally projecting vesica, and an extremely long ductus bursae in the female (Fibiger & Lafontaine 2005).

<==Erebidae [Arctiidae, Erebida, Eublemminae, Gonopteridae, Toxocampidae]ZK11
    |--AnobiniZK11
    |    |--Anoba Walker 1858FL05
    |    |    `--A. anguliplagaZK11
    |    `--MarcipaZK11
    `--+--+--HypeninaeZK11
       |  `--+--+--+--Oxycilla ondoZK11
       |     |  |  `--ZelicodesFL05
       |     |  `--Rivulinae [Rivulini]ZK11
       |     |       |--Rivula Guenée 1845FL05
       |     |       |    |--R. everta Swinhoe 1901Sw01a
       |     |       |    |--R. ommatopisNC91
       |     |       |    `--R. sericealisV09
       |     |       `--ZebeebaFL05
       |     `--+--Scoliopterygini [Gonopterini, Scoliopteryges]ZK11
       |        |    |--Scoliopteryx Germar 1810FL05
       |        |    |    `--S. libatrix [=Gonoptera libatrix]V09
       |        |    `--Litoprosopus Grote 1869 [Litoprosopinae]FL05
       |        `--Anomis Hübner 1821FL05 [AnominiZK11]
       |             |--A. esocampta Hampson 1926JG19
       |             |--A. flavaB88
       |             |--A. fulvidaWM66
       |             |--A. involutaMC13
       |             |--A. lyonaG84
       |             |--A. metaxanthaZK11
       |             `--A. sabuliferaP27a
       `--+--LymantriinaeKP19
          `--+--+--+--CalpinaeKP19
             |  |  `--+--+--Oxidercia toxeaZK11
             |  |     |  `--Azeta ceraminaZK11
             |  |     `--+--PanopodiniZK11
             |  |        `--Eulepidotis Hübner 1823FL05 [EulepidotiniZK11, Palindidae]
             |  |             |--E. geminataT62
             |  |             |--E. metamorphaT62
             |  |             |--E. preclara Todd 1962T62
             |  |             `--E. rectimargoZK11
             |  `--+--ErebinaeZK11
             |     `--+--ToxocampinaeZK11
             |        `--+--ScolecocampinaeZK11
             |           `--+--HypenodinaeZK11
             |              |    |  i. s.: TrigonistisNC91
             |              |    |         ParahypenodesFL05
             |              |    |--Hypenodes Doubleday 1850ZK11, FL05
             |              |    |    `--H. humidalisZK11
             |              |    `--+--Schrankia costaestrigalisZK11
             |              |       `--Micronoctua Fibiger 1997ZK11, FL05 [Micronoctuidae, Micronoctuinae]
             |              |            `--M. karsholtiFL05
             |              `--+--Saroba pustuliferaZK11
             |                 `--BoletobiinaeLS13
             `--+--Hypsoropha hormosaZK11
                `--+--+--Masca abactalisZK11
                   |  `--Pangraptinae [Pangraptini]ZK11
                   |       |--Pangrapta Hübner 1818FL05
                   |       |    |--P. bicornutaZK11
                   |       |    `--P. decoralisZK11
                   |       `--LedaeaFL05
                   `--+--+--HerminiinaeZK11
                      |  `--Aganainae [Aganaidae, Aganaides, Hypsidae]ZK11
                      |       |--Digama marmorea Butl. 1877NC91, M86b [incl. D. piepersiana Snell. 1879M86b]
                      |       |--Agape chloropygaNC91
                      |       |--NeocheraNC91
                      |       |--HypsaM86b
                      |       |--Peridroma Hübner 1821ZK11, FL05 [Peridromina]
                      |       |    `--P. sauciaRC94
                      |       |--Asota Hübner 1819ZK11, Z21 [Asotinae]
                      |       |    |--A. caricaeZK11
                      |       |    |--A. heliconiaZK11
                      |       |    `--A. iodamiaNC91
                      |       |--AmerilaM86b
                      |       |    |--A. astreas [=Sphinx astreas]M86b
                      |       |    |--A. brachyleuca Meyrick 1886M86b
                      |       |    |--A. rubripesM86b
                      |       |    |--‘Chelonia’ saucia [incl. Lithosia arthusbertrand]M86b
                      |       |    `--A. serica Meyrick 1886M86b
                      |       |--Composia fidellissimaH01
                      |       `--Aganais Boisduval 1832FL05
                      `--Arctiinae [Lithosiidae, Lithosiinae, Nyctemeridae, Nyctemerinae, Syntomidae, Syntominae]KP19
                           |  i. s.: AmsactaNC91
                           |         Ctimene synestia Meyrick 1886M86a
                           |         BursadaM86a
                           |         ExitelicaC70
                           |         ArginaNC91
                           |           |--A. astreaNC91
                           |           `--A. cribrariaP27b
                           |         Metacrias Meyrick 1886PPE03, M86b
                           |           |--M. erichrysa Meyrick 1886M86b
                           |           |--M. huttonii [=Phaos huttonii]M86b
                           |           `--M. strategicaPPE03
                           |         AloaMC13
                           |           |--A. bifronsWM66
                           |           |--A. lactineaWM66
                           |           `--A. marginataMC13
                           |         Calidota strigosa Wlk. 1855H01
                           |         Phryganopteryx Saalmüller 1884 [Phryganopterygini]FL05
                           |         Acsala Benjamin 1935 [Acsalini]FL05
                           |         Eudesmia Hübner 1823 non Br. in Flinders 1814 (ICBN) [Eudesmiini]FL05
                           |         CistheniniFL05
                           |           |--Cisthene Walker 1854FL05
                           |           `--Clemensia Packard 1864 [Clemensiti]FL05
                           |         Nudaria Haworth 1809 [Nudariidae, Nudariini]FL05
                           |           `--N. albidaM86b
                           |         Endrosa Hübner 1819 [Endrosinae, Endrosini]FL05
                           |         Thyretini [Thyretidae, Thyretinae]FL05
                           |           |--Automolis Hübner 1819 [Automolidinae]FL05
                           |           |--Hexaneura Wallengren 1860 [Hexaneuridae]FL05
                           |           `--Thyretes Boisduval 1847FL05
                           |         Phaegoptera Herrich-Schäffer 1853 [Phaegopterini]FL05
                           |--LithosiiniZK11
                           `--+--ArctiiniZK11
                              `--SyntominiZK11
Erebidae incertae sedis:
  EpisparisZK11
  Pareuchaetes pseudoinsulataW03
  Tyria jacobeaeDS73
  Agyrtidia uranophilaDS73
  Nicaea longipennisDS73
  Ardices curvataP27b
  Lexis nitensP27b
  Calamidia hirtaM86b [=Lithosia hirtaM86b; incl. C. salpinctis Meyrick 1886L90, M86b]
  Scaptesyle monogrammariaP27b
  AsuraM86b
    |--A. aurataL90
    |--A. cervicalisM86b
    |--A. habrotis Meyrick 1886M86b
    `--A. lydia [=Pitane lydia; incl. A. gaudens]M86b
  ComarchisM86b
  Stauropolia nekrutenkoiGE05
  Josiomorpha penetrataGE05
  Episcea extravagansGE05
  Crocomela luxuriosaGE05
  Emydia striata [incl. E. striata var. bipunctata]P01
  Diacrisia russulaP01
  Nemeophila plantaginisP01
  HemihyleaWZ10
  DeiopeiaM86b
    |--D. pulchellaM86b
    `--D. syringaM86b
  Hestiarcha Meyrick 1886M86b
    `--*H. pyrrhopa Meyrick 1886M86b
  Exotrocha Meyrick 1886M86b
    `--*E. liboria [=Noctua liboria, Lithosia liboria]M86b
  Heterallactis Meyrick 1886M86b
    `--*H. euchrysa Meyrick 1886M86b
  Parelictis Meyrick 1886M86b
    `--*P. saleuta Meyrick 1886M86b
  Scaeodora Meyrick 1886M86b
    |--*S. omophanes Meyrick 1886M86b
    |--S. chionastis Meyrick 1886M86b
    `--S. rava Lucas 1890L90
  CluacaM86b
    |--C. rubricostaM86b
    `--C. struthias Meyrick 1886M86b
  Anestia Meyrick 1886M86b
    |--*A. ombrophanes Meyrick 1886M86b
    `--A. inquinata Lucas 1890L90
  Palaexera Meyrick 1886M86b
    `--*P. phyllodes Meyrick 1886M86b
  Teulisna dasypyga [=Diastrophia dasypyga]M86b
  CalligeniaM86b
    |--C. cyclota Meyrick 1886M86b
    |--C. melitaula Meyrick 1886M86b
    |--C. pyraula Meyrick 1886M86b
    `--C. structa [=Pallene structa]M86b
  Symmetrodes Meyrick 1886M86b
    `--*S. nitens [=Lithosia nitens; incl. L. remota]M86b
  Neobrocha Meyrick 1886M86b
    |--N. adoxa Meyrick 1886M86b
    `--N. phaeocyma Meyrick 1886M86b
  SorocostiaM86b
  MosodaM86b
    |--M. anartoides Walk. 1900M86b
    |--M. bancrofti Lucas 1890L90
    |--M. consolatrix Ros. 1885M86b
    |--M. jucunda [=Pallene jucunda; incl. Tospitis transitana]M86b
    |--M. lineata Lucas 1890L90
    |--M. ophiodes Meyrick 1886M86b
    |--M. sejuncta [=Pitane sejuncta]M86b
    |--M. servilis Meyrick 1886M86b
    `--M. venusta Lucas 1890L90
  Hectobrocha Meyrick 1886M86b
    |--*H. pentacyma Meyrick 1886M86b
    |--H. multilinea Lucas 1890L90
    `--H. subnigra Lucas 1890L90
  ChiripheM86b
    |--C. anguliscripta Lucas 1890L90
    |--C. catarrhoa Meyrick 1886M86b
    |--C. dichotoma Meyrick 1886M86b
    |--C. dictyota Meyrick 1886M86b
    |--C. monogrammariaM86b
    |--C. procrena Meyrick 1886M86b
    `--C. stenopa Meyrick 1886M86b
  Zia tactalis [incl. Aquita horridella]M86b
  AreasM86b
    |--A. costalis [=Aloa costalis]M86b
    |--A. lactineaM86b
    `--A. marginata (Linnaeus 1758)M86b, L58 (see below for synonymy)
  EutaneM86b
    |--E. partitaM86b
    `--E. terminalis [incl. E. maculata Butl. 1877]M86b
  Hyphantria cunea Drury 1773BB01
  Ecpantheria albiscripta Druce 1901D01a
  HyperthaemaSc01
    |--H. albipuncta Schaus 1901Sc01
    `--H. haemacta Schaus 1901Sc01
  NeritosSc01
    |--N. asanaD01b
    |--N. blanda Druce 1901D01b
    `--N. sanguipuncta Schaus 1901Sc01
  Robinsonia polyplagia Schaus 1901Sc01
  HalisidotaSc01
    |--H. arenacea Schaus 1901Sc01
    |--H. huaco Schaus 1901Sc01
    |--H. pallida Schaus 1901Sc01
    `--H. perdentata Schaus 1901Sc01
  AmastusSc01
    |--A. adela Schaus 1901Sc01
    `--A. coccinator Schaus 1901Sc01
  IschnocampaSv01
    |--I. nigridorsata Schaus 1901Sc01
    `--I. nigrivena Schaus 1901Sc01
  Turuptiana obscura Schaus 1901Sc01
  Hyalarctia sericea Schaus 1901Sc01
  Munonia iridescensSc01
  MaenasSc01
    |--M. bilinea Schaus 1901Sc01
    `--M. salamimiaF92
  Antarctia fervida Schaus 1901Sc01
  HolomelinaSc01
    |--H. cocciniceps Schaus 1901Sc01
    `--H. trigonifera Schaus 1901Sc01
  EucyrtaD01b
    |--E. dagaD01b
    `--E. lugens Druce 1901D01b
  Elysus chrysellus Druce 1901D01b
  Capotena elaina Swinhoe 1901Sw01b
  Erizada Walker 1865 [incl. Tinosoma Hmpsn. 1894]Sw01b
    `--E. semifervens (Walker 1864) (see below for synonymy)Sw01b
  Opharus euripides Druce 1900D00
  MazaerasD00
    |--M. franckiiD00
    `--M. soteria Druce 1900D00
  Cocytia Boisduval 1828 [Cocytides, Cocytiinae]FL05
  TigriodesL90
    |--T. alterna [=Setina alterna; incl. Lithosia transversa]M86b
    |--T. furcifera [=Setina furcifera; incl. S. trifurcata]M86b
    |--T. heminephes Meyrick 1886M86b
    |--T. nana [=Lithosia nana]M86b
    |--T. pulverulenta Lucas 1890L90
    |--T. spilarcha Meyrick 1886M86b
    |--T. splendens Lucas 1890L90
    `--T. transcripta Lucas 1890L90
  Thrypticodes xyloglypta Lucas 1890L90
  SarotrichaL90
    |--S. demiota Lucas 1890L90
    |--S. punctata Lucas 1890L90
    `--S. undulanaL90

Areas marginata (Linnaeus 1758)M86b, L58 [=Phalaena (Geometra) marginataM86b, L58; incl. A. mooreiM86b, A. roseicostisM86b]

Erizada semifervens (Walker 1864) [=Gadirtha semifervens; incl. Tinosoma hyperythrum Hmpsn. 1894, Erizada lichenaria Walker 1865]Sw01b

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

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