Eriocaulon sp., copyright Dinesh Valke.

Belongs within: Poales.

The Eriocaulaceae, pipeworts, are basally-leaved herbs mostly found growing in acidic wet soils or aquatically.

Characters (from Flora of North America): Herbs, annual or perennial, caespitose or solitary, rosulate, rarely caulescent, mostly scapose, glabrous or variously pubescent with simple or compound hairs. Rootstocks rhizomes or stems, thickened, short to variously elongate; roots fibrous, spongy, or spongy-septate (diaphragmatic). Stems erect to repent or prostrate, axis sympodial or monopodial, sometimes branching. Leaves mostly many ranked in rosettes, sometimes in loose spirals, mostly grasslike; blade linear to linear-triangular, lingulate, tapering, base mostly clasping; veins parallel. Inflorescences terminal and/or axillary, usually simple (rarely compound), usually involucrate (rarely proliferative), buttonlike or short-cylindric; scape sheaths spathelike, tubular, enclosing scape base, distally open; scapes 1–many, usually simple (rarely compound), terete, usually twisted, mostly multiribbed; involucral bracts spirally imbricate series, usually chaffy or scarious, grading inward to receptacular bracts or these absent; receptacle glabrous or variously hairy. Flowers (florets) unisexual, staminate and pistillate on same (rarely different) plants, radially or bilaterally symmetric; sepals 2–3, distinct or variously connate, diverging from stipelike base or merely part of lobeless column; petals absent or 2–3, diverging from short to elongate stipe (part of androphore or gynophore) or merely part of lobeless column; stamens 2–4(–6), often unequal; filaments arising from floral axis, rarely epipetalous; anthers mostly black, 1–2-locular, 2–4-sporangiate, versatile or basifixed, dehiscence longitudinal; pollen 1-grooved, 3-nucleate; appendages present in some flowers, glandlike or peglike, rarely bladelike, sometimes fringed or variously cleft; pistil compound, 2–3-carpellate; ovary superior, raised on gynophore, one locule per carpel; ovules 1 per locule, adaxial-apical, pendulous, orthotropous, bitegmic; style terminal, appendaged or unappendaged, 2–3-branched, branches simple or apex rebranched. Fruits capsules, thin-walled, loculicidal. Seeds translucent, ovoid, ellipsoid, or broadly fusiform, mostly 1 mm or shorter, variously ribbed or sculptured; endosperm copious, mealy-starchy, with compound starch grains; embryo apical.

<==Eriocaulaceae [Eriocauleae, Eriocaulineae]DS04
    |  i. s.: BlastocaulonYY22
    |         Leiothrix spiralisRJ11
    |    |  i. s.: PaepalanthusDS04
    |    |--Syngonanthus flavidulusDS04
    |    `--TonineaeDS04
    |         |--Tonina fluviatilisDS04
    |         `--Lachnocaulon Kunth 1841DS04, KC01
    |              `--L. ancepsDS04
              |  i. s.: E. australasicum [=Electrosperma australasicum]B78
              |         E. australeB78
              |         E. concretumLK14
              |         E. depressum [incl. E. heterogynum]B78
              |         E. deustumB78
              |         E. fistulosumLK14
              |         E. humboldtiiDS04
              |         E. inapertumLK14
              |         E. lividumLK14
              |         E. martianum Wallich ex Koernicke 1856 [=E. quinquangulare var. martianum (Wallich) Fyson 1921]SG02
              |         E. monoscapumB78
              |         E. nanumB78
              |         E. nigricansB78
              |         E. odontospermumLK14
              |         E. palghatense Ans. & Balak. 1994SG02
              |         E. pallidumB78
              |         E. patericolaLK14
              |         E. pusillumLK14
              |         E. pygmaeumLK14
              |         E. scariosumB78
              |         E. schultziiB78
              |         E. scullioniiLK14
              |         E. septangulare [incl. E. pellucidum]C55
              |         E. sexangulareB78
              |         E. setaceum [incl. E. intermedium]B78
              |         E. smithiiB78
              |         E. spectabileLK14
              |         E. tortuosumLK14
              |--E. (sect. Anisopetalae) polycephalum [=E. longicuspis var. polycephalum]KD72
              |--E. sect. Cristato-sepalaeKD72
              |    |--E. cuspidatumKD72
              |    |--E. elenoraeKD72
              |    |--E. margaretaeKD72
              |    |--E. stellulatumKD72
              |    `--E. vanheurckiiKD72
              |--E. (sect. Hirsutae) wightianumKD72
              |--E. sect. LeucantheraeKD72
              |    |--E. breviscapumKD72
              |    |--E. cinereumKD72 [incl. E. ciliiflorumB78, E. heteranthumB78, E. sieboldianumKD72]
              |    |--E. dalzellii [incl. E. rivulare]KD72
              |    `--E. ritchieanumKD72
              `--E. sect. SimplicesKD72
                   |--E. achitonKD72
                   |--E. collinumKD72
                   |--E. conicumKD72
                   |--E. dianaeKD72
                   |    |--E. d. var. dianaeKD72
                   |    `--E. d. var. longibracteatumKD72
                   |--E. duthieiKD72
                   |--E. nepalenseKD72
                   |--E. quinquangulareKD72
                   |--E. sedgwickiiKD72
                   |--E. truncatumKD72
                   `--E. xeranthemumKD72

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B78] Bentham, G. 1878. Flora Australiensis: A description of the plants of the Australian Territory vol. 7. Roxburghiaceae to Filices. L. Reeve & Co.: London.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467–510.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[KD72] Kulkarni, A. R., & M. H. Desai. 1972. Family Eriocaulaceae in Kolhapur and its environs. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (1): 231–235.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[RJ11] Rising, J. D., A. Jaramillo, J. L. Copete, P. G. Ryan & S. C. Madge. 2011. Family Emberizidae (buntings and New World sparrows). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 428–683. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[SG02] Sardesai, M. M., S. P. Gaikwad, S. M. Bhuskute & S. R. Yadav. 2002. Some new records for the state of Maharashtra. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 567–569.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

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