Eriophyoidea

Features of Rhyncaphytoptus ficifoliae, from Elhalawany et al. (2019). AD, anterio-dorsal mite; AL, anterio-lateral mite; PM, postero-lateral mite; CGF, coxi-genital region of female; CGM, coxi-genital region of male; em, empodium; IG, internal female genitalia; DN, dorsal nymph; VN, ventral nymph. Scale bars: 10µm for AD, AL, PM, CGF, CGM, IG; DN, VN; 2.5µm for em.

Belongs within: Eupodoidea.
Contains: Nalepellinae, Vasates, Diptilomiopidae, Eriophyinae.

The Eriophyoidea are a highly diverse group of phytophagous mites with a worm-ike body form and only two pairs of legs, with the hind pairs lost. They feed by inserting their cheliceral stylets into plant cells and sucking out the cell contents. Many species induce formation of galls and other growth deformities in their host which provide shelter to the feeding mites (Walter et al. 2009). A distinct prodorsal shield is present at the front of the body; this may carry multiple setae in members of the family Phytoptidae but carries at most one or often no setae in the Rhyncaphytoptidae and Eriophyidae. Members of the Rhyncaphytoptidae have a large gnathosoma with stylets that are abruptly curved ventrally near the base whereas Eriophyidae have a smaller gnathosoma with more or less straight stylets.

Dispersal between plant hosts is usually by means of wind currents; little or no strong evidence has been found for phoresy by eriophyoids. Some species may form a wax- or web-like coating over leaves though the mechanism by which they do so remains uncertain (Walter et al. 2009).

Characters (from Walter et al. 2009): Soft-bodied or armoured dorsally, annulate, worm-like. Gnathosoma with an open dorsomedian infracapitular gutter that ensheaths 7-9 stylet-like structures, flanked by simple, weakly four-segmented palpi; cheliceral shafts stylet-like (imperceptibly split into fixed and movable parts apically), accompanied by a pair of auxiliary stylets, an unpaired oral stylet (the labrum), and a lateral pair of guide-like structures that sometimes end in freely projecting stylet-like apices; cheliceral bases not enlarged, not forming a stylophore; without stigmata and tracheae. Prodorsum covered by a prodorsal shield bearing maximally 5, minimally 0, simple setae, none of which is inserted in bothridia; prodorsum usually lacking eyes, or rarely with a pair of smooth, somewhat convex, eyelike areas laterally. Opisthosoma wither vermiform, with numerous narrow small annuli differentiated little from dorsum to venter, or fusiform, with dorsal annuli consolidated into a series of fewer, thicker, less flexible ‘tergites’, delineated laterally from more numerous narrow ventral annuli; opisthosoma lacking all cupules (lyrifissures), with setation reduced to maximally seven pairs of setae, of which 3-4 pairs displaced ventrolaterally to resemble ventral setae; caudally, opisthosoma terminating with adhesive structure flanked dorsally by pair of elongate caudal setae. Genital opening transverse, positioned more or less closely behind legs II; genital opening exposed in male but covered by an anteriorly hinged flap in female. With only two pairs of anteriorly inserted legs, lacking pairs III-IV; legs lacking true (paired) claws, but with a well-developed, unpaired empodial featherclaw. Leg setation reduced to maximum of six setae each, none bothridial; tarsi I-II consistently with a solenidion, which is usually inserted dorsodistally and often claw-like in form. Three active postembryonic instars: larva, nymph and adult.

Eriophyoidea [Phytoptina, Phytoptoidea, Tetrapodili, Zemiostigmata]
|--Phytoptidae [Sierraphytoptinae]LA01
| | i. s.: Phytoptus Dujardin 1851 [incl. Phytocoptella Newkirk & Keifer 1971]H98
| | |--P. avellanae Nalepa 1890 [=Eriophyes avellanae, Phytocoptella avellanae]H98
| | |--P. hedericolaWL09
| | |--P. leucothoniusWL09
| | |--P. rufensis Manson 1970SL71
| | `--P. terminalisG91
| | RetracarusWL09
| | |--R. elaeisWL09
| | `--R. johnstoniWL09
| |--NalepellinaeS-TK22
| `--+--Novophytoptus rostrataeS-TK22
| `--Oziella atherodesS-TK22
`--EriophyidaeH98
| i. s.: Phyllocoptruta Keifer 1938H98
| |--P. musae Keifer 1955H98
| |--P. oleivora (Ashmead 1879) (see below for synonymy)H98
| `--P. seringueiraeMF07
| Tegolophus Keifer 1961H98
| |--T. australis Keifer 1964H98
| |--T. brunneusMF07
| |--T. myersiFYP07
| `--T. perseafloraeMF07
| Colomerus Newkirk & Keifer 1971H98
| `--C. vitis (Pagenstecher 1857) [=Phytoptus vitis, Eriophyes vitis]H98
| Acaphylla Keifer 1943H98
| |--A. steinwedeni Keifer 1943H98
| `--A. theae (Watt & Mann 1903) [=Phytoptus theae]H98
| Tegonatus convolvuliG91
| Aleacarus sacchariG91
| ParaphytoptusG91
| |--P. chrysanthemiG91
| `--P. magdalenaeW99
| Aculops Keifer 1966H98
| |--A. bassiae Keifer 1971H98
| |--A. fuchsiaNMF07
| |--A. keiferi Southcott & Lange 1971DB11
| |--A. lycopersici (Tryon 1917) [=Phyllocoptes lycopersici, Aculus lycopersici, Vasates lycopersici]H98
| |--A. pelekassiWL09
| `--A. toxicophagusBC01
| AcalitusWL09
| |--A. adoratusBC01
| |--A. essigiWL09
| |--A. gossypiiNMF07
| |--A. morrisoni Manson 1970SL71
| |--A. phloeocoptesBY99
| |--A. rubensis Manson 1970SL71
| |--A. stenaspisNMF07
| `--A. tenuis Manson 1970SL71
| Calacarus Keifer 1940H98
| |--C. adornatus (Keifer 1940)SL71
| |--C. brionesaeBY99
| |--C. carinatus (Green 1890) [=Typhlodromus carinatus]H98
| |--C. citrifoliiWL09
| |--C. flagellisetaMF07
| |--C. heveaeMF07
| `--C. lantanaeW99
| VasatesMB91
| Metaculus mangiferaeWL09
| Epitrimerus Nalepa 1898H98
| |--E. calami Keifer 1969H98
| |--E. coactusBC01
| |--E. inulae Farkas 1963F63
| |--E. sabinaeFF22
| `--E. taraxaciWL09
| Floracarus perrepaeWL09
| Cysaberoptus kenyaeMF07
| Amrineus cocofoliusMF07
| Neocalacarus mangiferaeMF07
| Neotegonotus guavaeMF07
| NotostrixMF07
| |--N. attenuataMF07
| |--N. jamaicaeMF07
| `--N. nasutiformesMF07
| Rhombacus Keifer 1965H98
| |--R. asclepiadii Keifer 1969H98
| |--R. eucalyptiMF07
| |--R. morrisi Keifer 1965H98
| `--R. rheumella Keifer 1970H98
| ShevtchenkellaMF07
| |--S. petiolulaMF07
| `--S. stefneseriW99
| Spinacus pagonisMF07
| TegonotusMF07
| |--T. haloragi (Lamb 1953)SL71
| |--T. ligustri Farkas 1963F63
| `--T. mangiferaeNMF07
| Acadicrus Keifer 1965H98
| |--A. bifurcatus Keifer 1965H98
| |--A. eucalypti (Gurney 1924) [=Eriophyes eucalypti]H98
| `--A. mergiferus Keifer 1965 [incl. A. viminalis Keifer 1965 (n. n.)]H98
| Acalox Keifer 1975H98
| `--A. ptychocarpi Keifer 1975H98
| Acerimina Keifer 1957H98
| `--A. cedrelae Keifer 1957 [=A. cedreli (l. c.)]H98
| Anothopoda Keifer 1959H98
| `--A. johnstoni Keifer 1959H98
| Colopodacus Keifer 1960H98
| `--C. glochidionis Keifer 1969H98
| Cosetacus Keifer 1966H98
| `--C. camelliae (Keifer 1945) [=Aceria camelliae]H98
| Ectomerus Newkirk & Keifer 1975H98
| `--E. anysis (Keifer 1970) [=Stenacis anysis]H98
| RhynacusD64
| |--R. breitlowi Davis 1964D64
| `--R. kraussiW99
| Acamina coconuciferaeOA96
| Vittacus mansoni Keifer 1969SL71
| CoptophyllaF63
| |--C. cerriquerci Farkas 1963F63
| `--C. geranii Farkas 1963F63
| AnthocoptesF63
| |--A. depressus Farkas 1963F63
| `--A. helianthellaWL09
| RhinophytoptusF63
| |--R. concinnusF63
| | |--R. c. concinnusF63
| | `--R. c. ypsilophorus Farkas 1963F63
| `--R. dudichi Farkas 1963F63
| Cisaberoptus kenyaeCK15
| AshieldophyinaeWL09
| AberoptinaeWL09
| Cecidophyes [Cecidophyinae]WL09
| `--C. rouhollahiWL09
|--NothopodiniS-TK22
| |--NothopodaS-TK22
| `--SurapodaS-TK22
`--+--NeovittacusS-TK22
`--+--Cecidophyopsis Keifer 1959S-TK22, H98
| | i. s.: C. vermiformisWL09
| |--C. ribis (Westwood 1869)S-TK22, H98 [=Phytoptus ribisH98]
| `--+--C. hendersoniS-TK22
| `--C. psilaspisS-TK22
`--+--PlatyphytoptusS-TK22
| |--P. pineae Castagnoli 1973NF01
| `--P. sabinianae Keifer 1938NF01
`--+--DiptilomiopidaeS-TK22
`--EriophyinaeS-TK22

Eriophyoidea incertae sedis:
AcathrixWL09
BoczekellaWL09
DialoxWL09
AcrinotusWL09
Triasacarus Lindquist & Grimaldi in Schmidt, Jancke et al. 2012SJ12
`--*T. fedelei Lindquist & Grimaldi in Schmidt, Jancke et al. 2012SJ12
Ampezzoa Lindquist & Grimaldi in Schmidt, Jancke et al. 2012SJ12
`--*A. triassica Lindquist & Grimaldi in Schmidt, Jancke et al. 2012SJ12
Fragariocoptes setigerFF22
LeipothrixFF22
Rhinotergum shaoguanenseFF22

Fossil gall: Phytoptus antiquus von Heyden 1860DB11

Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead 1879) [=Typhlodromus oiliioorus, T. oleivorus, Phyllocoptes oleivorus, Phyllocoptruta oleivorus]H98

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BY99] Bakker, F. M., & J. S. Yaninek. 1999. Mite pests in tropical agriculture. In: Needham, G. R., R. Mitchell, D. J. Horn & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 2. Symposia pp. 255–263. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[BC01] Briese, D. T., & J. M. Cullen. 2001. The use and usefulness of mites in biological control of weeds. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 453–463. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[CK15] Calvo, F. J., M. Knapp, Y. M. van Houten, H. Hoogerbrugge & J. E. Belda. 2015. Amblyseius swirskii: what made this predatory mite such a successful biocontrol agent? Experimental and Applied Acarology 65: 419–433.

[D64] Davis, R. 1964. Autecological studies of Rhynacus breitlowi Davis, (Acarina: Eriophyidae). Florida Entomologist 47 (2): 113–121.

[DB11] Dunlop, J. A., & S. J. Braddy. 2011. Cteniza bavincourti and the nomenclature of arachnid-related trace fossils. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 250–257.

[FYP07] Faber, B. A., W. L. Yee & P. A. Phillips. 2007. Effect of abamectin treatments for avocado thrips (Scirtothrips perseae Nakahara [Thysanoptera: Thripidae]) on persea mite (Oligonychus perseae Tuttle, Baker and Abbatiello [Acari: Tetranychidae]) and avocado bud mite (Tegolophus myresi Keifer [Acari: Eriophyidae]) populations and on their associated damage to leaves and fruit of avocado (Persea americana). In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 521–527. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[FF22] Fang, Y., Y. Fang, L. Chu, Z. Zuo, L. Liu, R. Feng, Z. Zhang, X. Zhan, F. Li, C. Hu, L. Ding, M. Wu, R. Pan, R. Han, X. Xia, Y. Wen & E. Sun. 2022. The first complete mitochondrial genome of Bdelloidea (Trombidiformes, Eupodina) and comparative genomics provide insights into gene rearrangement and evolution of trombidiform mites. Journal of Stored Products Research 98: 102009.

[F63] Farkas, H. K. 1963. On the eriophyids from Hungary. IV. The description of new species (Acari, Eriophyidae). Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 9 (3–4): 237–270.

[G91] Gupta, S. K. 1991. The mites of agricultural importance in India with remarks on their economic status. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 509–522. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[LA01] Lillo, E. de, & P. Aldini. 2001. Functional morphology of some leg sense organs in Pediculaster mesembrinae (Acari: Siteroptidae) and Phytoptus avellanae (Acari: Phytoptidae). In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 217–225. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[MB91] Michalska, K., & J. Boczek. 1991. Sexual behavior of males attracted to quiescent deutonymphs in the Eriophyoidea (Acari). In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 549–553. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[MF07] Moraes, G. J. de, & C. H. W. Flechtmann. 2007. Phytophagous mites of tropical crops in eastern South America. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 279–288. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[NF01] Návia, D., & C. H. W. Flechtmann. 2001. Platyphytoptus pineae Castagnoli, an eriophyid mite described from Pinus pinae L. in Italy, present in central Brazil. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 392–393. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[NMF07] Navia, D., G. J. de Moraes & C. H. W. Flechtmann. 2007. Phytophagous mites as invasive alien species: quarantine procedures. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 307–316. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[OA96] Ochoa, R., H. Aguilar, G. Evans & C. Vargas. 1996. Knowledge of phytophagous mites (Prostigmata) of Central America. In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 181–184. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[SJ12] Schmidt, A. R., S. Jancke, E. E. Lindquist, E. Ragazzi, G. Roghi, P. C. Nascimbene, K. Schmidt, T. Wappler & D. A. Grimaldi. 2012. Arthropods in amber from the Triassic period. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (37): 14796–14801.

[SL71] Spain, A. V., & M. Luxton. 1971. Catalog and bibliography of the Acari of the New Zealand subregion. Pacific Insects Monograph 25: 179–226.

[S-TK22] Szudarek-Trepto, N., A. Kaźmierski, A. Skoracka, M. Lewandowski & J. Dabert. 2022. Molecular phylogeny supports the monophyly of the mite supercohort Eupodides (Acariformes: Trombidiformes) and greatly coincides with traditional morphological definition of the taxon. Annales Zoologici 72 (4): 757–786.

[W99] Walter, D. E. 1999. Cryptic inhabitants of a noxious weed: mites (Arachnida: Acari) on Lantana camara L. invading forests in Queensland. Australian Journal of Entomology 38: 197–200.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *