Erotylinae

Pleasing fungus beetle Megalodacne heros, photographed by Stephen Cresswell.

Belongs within: Cucujoidea.
Contains: Tritomini.

The Erotylinae are a clade of beetles associated with fungi, usually macroscopic Basidiomycetes (Leschen 2003). Many species are brightly coloured and produce distasteful defensive chemicals from pores and joints on the body (Bouchard 2014). The antennal insertions are visible from above in members of tribes Dacnini, Megalodacnini and Tritomini but concealed in Encaustini and some Erotylini. Dacnini lack the mesoventral glandular ducts found in other tribes. Members of the genus Megalodacne are distinguished by the presence of a brushy lacinia (Leschen 2003). Erotylini have tarsi with the first segment equal in length to segments 2 and 3 combined, and lacking setae on the empodium (Leschen 2003). Encaustini have the ventral mouthparts retracted and enclosed by the mandibles (Leschen 2003).

Characters (from Leschen 2003): Subapical serrations of mandible absent; lacidian usually with two lacinial spines; lateral pockets present on mentum; medial carina of mentum usually present; width of apical labial palpomere greater than or equal to length, palpomere often securiform; width of ligular membrane equal to prementum; transverse gular line usually present, usually as shallow or beadlike groove; antennal insertions usually hidden in dorsal view; supraocular line usually present to level beyond eye; transverse line absent on vertex of head; two stridulatory files present or absent on vertex of head; pronotal shape variable, not constricted at base; anterior angles of pronotum well developed; anterior margin of prosternum smooth; pronotal pits absent; glandular ducts usually present in lateral carina of pronotum, unitubulate; prosternal glandular ducts present or absent; procoxal cavity internally open, externally closed by prosternum and hypomeron; edge of hypomeron smooth; mesoventral glandular ducts usually present; mesepisternal fovea absent; mesometaventral articulation usually dicondylic; width of mesoventral process usually greater than or equal to mesocoxa; submesocoxal lines present or absent; metaventral pores present or absent; metepisternal ctenidium absent; abdominal ventrites 1 and 2 connate; abdominal cuticular glandular ducts present or absent at disk and margin; abdominal calli present or absent; metafurcal lamina usually present with well developed median stalk; spermatheca rounded or elongate; apical pit of spermatheca usually absent; acessory gland of spermatheca usually present; length of tarsomere 1 usually equal to tarsomere 2; tarsomere 4 usually reduced and hidden in ventral view; tarsal shelf of tarsomere 5 present; empodium usually with two setae; elytral punctation striate without scutellary striole; elytra usually narrowly explanate; radial cell present; wedge cell absent.

<==Erotylinae
|--+--TritominiL03
| `--+--Megalodacne Crotch 1873SM02 [Megalodacninae, MegalodacniniL03]
| | |--M. fasciatusL03
| | `--M. herosL03
| `--+--Encaustini [Encaustinae]L03
| | |--Encaustes herculesLB91
| | |--MicrencaustesLB91
| | `--AulacocheilusL03
| | |--A. capensis [=Triplax capensis]G01
| | `--A. chevrolatii Lucas 1846E12
| `--ErotyliniL03
| |--CoccimorphusL03
| |--HomoeotelusL03
| |--Brachysphoenus Lac. 1842L03, FS90
| | `--B. marginatus Ol. 1791 [incl. B. guadelupensis, B. suturalis]FS90
| |--ThallisL03
| | |--T. comptaLB91
| | |--T. janthinaR54
| | `--T. politaL03
| `--Erotylus Fabricius 1775L03
| |--E. annularis Laporte de Castelnau 1840LC40
| |--E. gibbosusL02
| |--E. giganteusG20
| |--E. histrionicusFS90
| |--E. insignis Laporte de Castelnau 1840LC40
| `--E. onagga Lacordaire 1842B14
`--Dacnini [Dacnides, Dacninae]L03
|--CryptodacneL03
|--Hoplepiscapha Lea 1922L03
| `--H. longicornisL03
|--Pycnogeusteria Gorham 1900G00
| `--*P. kraatzi Gorham 1900G00
|--Lophocrotaphus Gorham 1900G00
| `--*L. guineensis Gorham 1900G00
|--Microsternus Lewis 1887SM02
| `--M. ulkeiSM02
|--AmblyopusG00
| |--A. testaceusG00
| `--A. vittatusG00
|--Zythonia Westwood 1874G00
| |--Z. anthracina Gorham 1900G00
| `--Z. fulvaG00
|--AmblyscelisG00
| |--*A. kelleniG01
| |--A. brunneus Gorham 1900G00
| |--A. conradti Gorham 1900G00
| |--A. haemorrhous (Gorham 1885) [=Amblyopus haemorrhous]G00
| |--A. natalensis (Crotch 1876) [=Amblyopus natalensis]G01
| |--A. nigrinus Gorham 1900G01
| `--A. pallidus Gorham 1888G00
`--Dacne Latreille 1796 [incl. Engis Paykull 1800]SM02
| i. s.: D. aequinoctialisG01
| ‘Engis’ australis [=Episcapha australis]B35
| D. capensis Crotch 1876G01
| ‘Engis’ cayennensis Laporte de Castelnau 1840LC40
| ‘Engis’ decorata Laporte de Castelnau 1840LC40
| ‘Engis’ dehaanii Laporte de Castelnau 1840LC40
| ‘Engis’ fasciataLC40
| ‘Engis’ grandisLC40
| ‘Engis’ javanica Laporte de Castelnau 1840LC40
| ‘Engis’ orientalis Laporte de Castelnau 1840LC40
| D. pictaSM02
| D. rufifrons [=Engis rufifrons]LC40
| ‘Engis’ sanguinicollis [incl. Dermestes sanguinicollis]LC40
| ‘Engis’ signata Laporte de Castelnau 1840LC40
| ‘Engis’ undulata Laporte de Castelnau 1840LC40
|--D. (Dacne)SM02
| |--D. (D.) californicaSM02
| |--D. (D.) humeralisG20 [=Engis humeralisL02, Ips (D.) humeralisG20]
| `--D. (D.) quadrimaculataSM02
`--D. (Xenodacne Boyle 1956)SM02
|--D. (X.) cyclochilusSM02
|--D. (X.) piceaSM02
`--D. (X.) pubescensSM02

Erotylinae incertae sedis:
EpiscaphulaLB91
|--E. aulacochiloides Crotch 1876G01
|--E. herculesB70
|--E. interruptaG01
|--E. pictipennisC91
`--E. picturata Gorham 1901G01
CnecosaLB91
PselaphacusMW15
|--P. nigropunctatusRS15
`--P. signatusMW15
Gibbifer Voet 1778 [incl. Cypherotylus Crotch 1873]SM02
`--G. californicusSM02

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d’Urville. Faune entomologique de l’océan Pacifique, avec l’illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature’s gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[B70] Britton, E. B. 1970. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 495–621. Melbourne University Press.

[C91] CSIRO. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[FS90] Fleutiaux, E., & A. Sallé. 1890. Liste des coléoptères de la Guadeloupe et descriptions d’espèces nouvelles. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 351–484.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[G00] Gorham, H. S. 1900. Descriptions of new genera and species of Coleoptera from South and West Africa, of the section Serricornia, and of the families Erotylidae, Endomychidae, and Languriidae. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 5: 71–94.

[G01] Gorham, H. S. 1901. Descriptions of genera and species of Coleoptera from South Africa (continued). Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 349–365.

[LC40] Laporte de Castelnau, F. 1840. Histoire Naturelle des Insectes Coléoptères vol. 2. P. Duménil: Paris.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[LB91] Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 543–683. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[L03] Leschen, R. A. B. 2003. Erotylidae (Insecta: Coleoptera: Cucujoidea): phylogeny and review. Fauna of New Zealand 47: 1–108.

[MW15] McKenna, D. D., A. L. Wild, K. Kanda, C. L. Bellamy, R. G. Beutel, M. S. Caterino, C. W. Farnum, D. C. Hawks, M. A. Ivie, M. L. Jameson, R. A. B. Leschen, A. E. Marvaldi, J. V. McHugh, A. F. Newton, J. A. Robertson, M. K. Thayer, M. F. Whiting, J. F. Lawrence, A. Ślipiński, D. R. Maddison & B. D. Farrell. 2015. The beetle tree of life reveals that Coleoptera survived end-Permian mass extinction to diversify during the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Systematic Entomology 40 (4): 835–880.

[R54] Riek, E. F. 1954. Australian wasps of the family Proctotrupidae (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupoidea). Australian Journal of Zoology 3: 106–117.

[RS15] Robertson, J. A., A. Ślipiński, M. Moulton, F. W. Shockley, A. Giorgi, N. P. Lord, D. D. McKenna, W. Tomaszewska, J. Forrester, K. B. Miller, M. F. Whiting & J. V. McHugh. 2015. Phylogeny and classification of Cucujoidea and the recognition of a new superfamily Coccinelloidea (Coleoptera: Cucujiformia). Systematic Entomology 40: 745–778.

[SM02] Skelley, P. E., & J. V. McHugh. 2002. Erotylidae Leach 1815. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 348–353. CRC Press.

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