Erythraeinae

 Eatoniana plumipes, photographed by Cor Zonneveld.

Belongs within: Erythraeoidea.
Contains: Erythraeus.

The Erythraeinae are a group of often large erythraeid mites that possess two pairs of eyes, rather than one pair as in other erythraeids. In members of the genera Augustsonella to Kakamasia in the tree below, the palp bears distinctly thickened, peg- or cone-like setae (conalae) on the genu and tibia; these modified setae are absent in other genera (Gabryś 1991). The palpal conalae are present dorsolaterally on the appendage in the North American Augustsonella tuberculata whereas in other genera with palpal conalae are present ventrally only. The New Zealand species Neosmaris novaezealandiae has the crista obsolescent with only the anterior and posterior sensillary areas remaining (Southcott 1961).

Characters (from Southcott 1961): Erythraeidae with two eyes on each side. Adult and nymph normally with a crista (absent in Neosmaris); anterior sensillary area of crista placed dorsally at the anterior pole of the propodosoma. Larvae with two eyes on each side; dorsal scutum rounded or squarish with two or three pairs of scutalae (except teratologically); lateral (neolateral) tarsal claws asymmetrical.

<==ErythraeinaeS61
    |  i. s.: Forania Southcott 1961S61
    |           `--*F. mentonensis (André 1929) [=Bochartia mentonensis]S61
    |         Grognieria Oudemans 1941 (n. d.)S61
    |           `--*G. agilis (Canestrini 1884) [=Rhyncholophus agilis]S61
    |         Bochartia Oudemans 1910 [=Bockartia (l. c.), Brochartia (l. c.)]S61
    |           |--*B. kuyperi Oudemans 1910S61
    |           `--B. adrastus Southcott 1961S61
    |--+--Augustsonella Southcott 1961G91 [=Augustsonia Southcott 1961S61; Augustsonellinae]
    |  |    `--*A. tuberculata (Augustson 1940) [=Erythraeus tuberculatus, *Augustsonia tuberculata]S61
    |  `--+--Lasioerythraeus Welbourn & Young 1987G91
    |     |    |--L. johnstoniWL09
    |     |    `--L. whitcombiWL09
    |     `--+--+--Tepoztlana Hoffmann & Mendez 1973G91
    |        |  `--ErythraeusG91
    |        `--+--Podosmaridia Trägårdh 1937G91
    |           |    `--*P. longipes Trägårdh 1937S61
    |           `--+--Claverythraeus Trägårdh 1937G91
    |              |    `--*C. mongolicus Trägårdh 1937S61
    |              `--Kakamasia Lawrence 1944G91
    |                   |--*K. polygona Lawrence 1944S61
    |                   `--K. pilosa Lawrence 1944S61
    `--+--Neosmaris Hirst 1926G91
       |    `--*N. novaezealandiae Hirst 1926S61
       `--+--Erythrellus Southcott 1946G91
          |    `--*E. imbricatus Southcott 1946S61
          `--+--+--+--Paraphanolophus Smiley 1968G91
             |  |  `--Erythraxus Southcott 1961G91
             |  |       `--*E. bisetosus (Wharton 1938) [=Erythraeus bisetosa, Erythraeus bisetosus]S61
             |  `--+--Curteria Southcott 1961G91 [incl. Pedroerythraeus Haitlinger 2004WMG07]
             |     |    |--*C. curticristata (Willmann 1950) [=Morieria curticristata]WMG07
             |     |    |--C. episcopalis (Koch 1837)WMG07
             |     |    |--C. ernesti (Haitlinger 2004) [=Pedroerythraeus ernesti]WMG07
             |     |    `--C. southcotti Gabryś 1992WMG07
             |     `--Eatoniana Cambridge 1898G91 (see below for synonymy)
             |          |--E. plumipes (Koch 1856)S61 (see below for synonymy)
             |          |--‘Erythraeus (*Ptilolophus)’ claviger Berlese 1916B16
             |          |--E. namaquensis (Lawrence 1937)S61
             |          `--E. plumifer Birula 1893 (see below for synonymy)S61
             `--+--Erythroides Southcott 1946G91
                |    |--*E. serratus (Womersley 1936)S61 [=Erythraeus serratusH98]
                |    |--E. clavatus Southcott 1946H98
                |    |--E. darwini Southcott 1946H98
                |    |--E. macdonnelli Southcott 1946H98
                |    `--E. neoserratus Southcott 1946H98
                `--+--Rainbowia Southcott 1961G91
                   |    |--*R. imperator (Hirst 1928)S61 (see below for synonymy)
                   |    `--R. celeripes (Rainbow 1906) [=Rhyncholophus celeripes, Erythraeus celeripes]H98
                   `--Erythrites Southcott 1961G91
                        |  i. s.: E. jacksoniWL09
                        |--E. (Erythrites)S61
                        |    |--*E. (E.) reginae (Hirst 1928)S61 (see below for synonymy)
                        |    `--E. (E.) stuarti (Southcott 1946)S61 [=Erythraeus stuartiH98]
                        |--E. (Gerites Southcott 1961)S61
                        |    |--E. (*G.) guttatus (Southcott 1946)S61 [=Erythraeus guttatusH98]
                        |    `--E. (G.) osmondensis (Southcott 1946)S61 [=Erythraeus osmondensisH98]
                        |--E. (Terebrites Southcott 1961)S61
                        |    `--E. (*T.) womersleyi (Southcott 1946)S61 [=Erythraeus womersleyiH98]
                        `--E. (Urrbites Southcott 1961)S61
                             |--E. (*U.) urrbrae (Womersley 1934)S61 (see below for synonymy)
                             `--E. (U.) pilosus (Hirst 1928)S61 [=Leptus pilosusH98, Erythraeus pilosusH98]

Eatoniana Cambridge 1898G91 [=Eatonia Cambridge 1897 nec Hall 1857 nec Smith 1875 nec Meunier 1905S61; incl. Lucasiella Banks 1900SB63, Macropus Birula 1893 nec Shaw 1790 nec Latreille 1802 nec Thunberg 1805 nec Spix 1824S61, Ptilolophus Berlese 1916B16, S61]

Eatoniana plumifer Birula 1893 [=Rhyncholophus plumifer; incl. E. georgei Oudemans 1941, E. plumifer f. transcaspica Oudemans 1941 (n. n.)]S61

Eatoniana plumipes (Koch 1856)S61 [=Rhyncholophus plumipesS61, *Lucasiella plumipesSB63; incl. R. plumipes Lucas 1864 non Koch 1856S61, *Eatonia scopulifera Cambridge 1897S61, *Eatoniana scopuliferaS61]

*Erythrites (Erythrites) reginae (Hirst 1928)S61 [=Leptus reginaeH98, Erythraeus regina (l. c.)H98, Erythraeus reginaeH98; incl. L. antepodianus Hirst 1928H98, Erythraeus antepodianusH98, Erythrites antepodianusH98]

Erythrites (*Urrbites) urrbrae (Womersley 1934)S61 [=Erythraeus urrbraeH98; incl. Bockartia (l. c.) longipes Womersley 1934H98, Bochartia longipesH98]

*Rainbowia imperator (Hirst 1928)S61 [=Leptus imperatorH98, Erythraeus imperatorH98; incl. Bochartia oudemansi Womersley 1936H98, E. oudemansiH98]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B16] Berlese, A. 1916. Centuria terza di Acari nuovi. Redia 12: 289–338.

[G91] Gabryś, G. 1991. Intergeneric relationships within Erythraeidae (Acari, Actinedida). In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 207–212. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[SB63] Schweizer, J., & C. Bader. 1963. Die Landmilben der Schweiz (Mittelland, Jura und Alpen): Trombidiformes Reuter, mit 217 Arten und Unterarten und 193 Originalzeichnungen. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft [Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles] 84 (2): i–vi, 209–378.

[S61] Southcott, R. V. 1961. Studies on the systematics and biology of the Erythraeoidea (Acarina), with a critical revision of the genera and subfamilies. Australian Journal of Zoology 9: 367–610.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

[WMG07] Wohltmann, A., J. Mąkol & G. Gabryś. 2007. Description of the larva of Curteria Southcott, 1961 (Acari, Parasitengona, Erythraeidae) with notes on biology and life cycle. Biologia 62 (5): 573–580.

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