Erythroxylaceae

Wild cocaine Erythroxylum cuneatum, copyright Loupok.

Belongs within: Malpighiales.

The Erythroxylaceae are a pantropical group of trees and shrubs with simple, alternate leaves and flowers with ligulate appendages (Conn & Kerenga 1995).

Characters (from Conn & Kerenga 1995): Trees or shrubs. Leaves simple, alternate, stipulate. Inflorescences terminal, axillary, solitary or in up to twenty-flowered clusters. Flowers bisexual, actinomorphic. Calyx and corolla pentamerous. Petals with ligulate appendage. Stamens 5 + 5, united basally to form a small tube, ovary 1–3-locular, only one ovule developed. Fruit a drupe. Seed more or less endospermous; embryo erect, with cotyledons flat to plano-convex.

<==Erythroxylaceae CK95
|–Nectaropetalum CK95
|–Aneulophus CK95
|–Pinacopodium CK95
`–Erythroxylum LS08
|  i. s.: E. areolatum XR12
|         E. bangii LS08
|         E. coca CK95
|         E. ellipticum LK14
|         E. novogranatense CK95
|         E. polygonoides LS08
|         E. obtusifolium VM03
|–E. (sect. Archerythroxylum) nummularia LS08
|–E. sect. Coelocarpus CK95
|    |–E. cuneatum (Miq.) Kurz 1874 CK95
|    `–E. ecarinatum Burck 1893 (see below for synonymy) CK95
`–E. sect. Rhabdophyllum LS08
|–E. bezerrae LS08
|–E. longisetulosum Loiola & de Sales 2008 LS08
|–E. tianguanum LS08
`–E. timothei Loiola & de Sales 2008 LS08

Erythroxylum ecarinatum Burck 1893 [incl. E. ecarinatum var. ledermannii Schulz 1924, E. salomonense White 1950] CK95

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CK95] Conn, B. J., & K. Kerenga. 1995. Erythroxylaceae. In: Conn, B. J. (ed.) Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 3 pp. 56–60. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Australia).

[LS08] Loiola, M. I. B., & M. F. de Sales. 2008. Two new species of Erythroxylum sect. Rhabdophyllum (Erythroxylaceae) from north-eastern Brazil. Kew Bulletin 63 (4): 655–659.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[VM03] Viswanathan, M. B., & U. Manikandan. 2003. A new species of Balsaminaceae, Impatiens tirunelvelica, from peninsular India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 189–194.

[XR12] Xi, Z., B. R. Ruhfel, H. Schaefer, A. M. Amorim, M. Sugumaran, K. J. Wurdack, P. K. Endress, M. L. Matthews, P. F. Stevens, S. Mathews & C. C. Davis. 2012. Phylogenomics and a posteriori data partitioning resolve the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation Malpighiales. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (43): 17519–17524.

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