Orange-cheeked waxbill Estrilda melpoda, copyright Rainbirder.

Belongs within: Estrildidae.

Estrilda, the waxbills, is a genus of finch-like birds found in Africa and Arabia. Most species have bright red bills whose waxy appearance gives them their vernacular name.

<==Estrilda Swainson 1827 [=Astrilda (l. c.), Estrelda (l. c.)]B94
    |--+--E. caerulescensBKB15
    |  `--E. erythronotosJF06
    `--+--E. perreiniBKB15
       `--+--+--E. melpodaBKB15
          |  `--E. rhodopygaBKB15
          `--+--E. nonnulaBKB15
             `--+--+--E. astrildBKB15
                |  |    |--E. a. astrildL81
                |  |    |--E. a. jagoensisL81
                |  |    `--E. a. sanctaehelenaeL81
                |  `--E. atricapillaBKB15
                `--+--E. paludicolaBKB15
                   `--E. troglodytesBKB15
Estrilda incertae sedis:
  E. amandavaA61
  E. annulosaR87
  E. bichenoviiCH89
  E. castanotisR87
  E. formosaA61
  E. charmosynaJT12
  E. guttataCH89
  E. kandtiJT12
  E. locustellaFP64
  E. modestaCH89
  E. nigrilorisJT12
  E. nitidulaA61
  E. phaetonR87
  E. poliopareiaJT12
  E. rufibarbaJT12
  E. ruficaudaR87
  E. rufopicta Fraser 1843F43
  E. subflavaL88
  E. temporalisCH89
  E. thomensisJT12

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CH89] Cox, J. D., & A. G. Hamilton. 1889. A list of the birds of the Mudgee district, with notes on their habits, etc. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (2): 395–424.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[F43] Fraser, L. 1843. On a new Rhinolophus, and four new species of birds from western Africa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 11: 25–27.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149–186.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[L88] Long, J. L. 1988. Introduced Birds and Mammals in Western Australia 2nd ed. Agriculture Protection Board of Western Australia.

[R87] Ramsay, E. P. 1887. List of Western Australian birds collected by Mr. Cairn, and Mr. W. H. Boyer-Bower, at Derby and its vicinity, with remarks on the species. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1085–1100.

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