Caterpillar of Ethmia bipunctella, photographed by Svdmolen.

Belongs within: Gelechioidea.

The Ethmiinae are a group of moths with larvae feeding on Boraginaceae. Infestation with Ethmia heliomela has been known to cause defoliation of its host Ehretia acuminata (Nielsen & Common 1991).

Characters (from Nielsen & Common 1991, as Ethmiidae): Small to medium sized; head smooth scaled; ocelli absent; antennae usually without pecten on scape; maxillary palps usually four-segmented, folded over base of proboscis; labial palps recurved; epiphysis present; hind tibiae with long filiform scales; fore wing without pterostigma, R4 and R5 stalked, R5 to costa or apex, CuP present at least towards margind; hind wing with Rs and M1 well separated at base, divergent, M2 not arising nearer to M3 than M1, CuP present; frenulum in female with three bristles; abdomen not spined; male genitalia with uncus often bifurcate or reduced, gnathos sometimes absent, valva usually deeply divided. Larva usually with some secondary setae at least in SV groups, crochets in bi- or uniordinal circle, mesoseries or mesal penellipse; usually beneath light webbing on Boraginaceae. Pupa with a pair of ventral, leg-like processes on abdominal segment 9, each with a series of hooked apical setae.

<==Ethmiinae [Ethmiidae]
    |  i. s.: ‘Symmoca’ maculifera Matsumura 1931G63
    |--Dasyethmia Danilevsky 1969K07
    |    `--*D. hiemalis Danilevsky 1969K07
         |--E. afghana Sattler 1967K07
         |--E. assamensis Butler 1879 [incl. Symmoca okinawana Matsumura 1931]G63
         |--E. bipunctella (Fabricius 1775)K07
         |--E. cirrhocnemia (Lederer 1870)K07
         |--E. clytodoxaNC91
         |--E. comitellaK07
         |    |--E. c. comitellaK07
         |    `--E. c. steppella Dubatolov & Ustjuzhanin 1997K07
         |--E. defreinai Ganev 1984K07
         |--E. derbendella Sattler 1967K07
         |--E. distigmatellaK07
         |--E. elimatella Danilevsky 1975 [=E. simatalla Danilevsky 1980 (n. n.)]K07
         |--E. euphoria Kun 2007K07
         |--E. hakkarica Koçak 1986K07
         |--E. heliomelaNC91
         |--E. hemadelphaNC91
         |--E. infelix Meyrick 1914 [incl. E. kurdistanella Amsel 1959]K07
         |--E. interposita Sattler 1967K07
         |--E. iranella (Zerny 1940)K07
         |--E. kabulica Amsel 1969K07
         |--E. lecmimaK07
         |    |--E. l. lecmimaK07
         |    `--E. l. amsel Kemal & Koçak 2005K07
         |--E. pagiopa Sattler 1967K07
         |--E. percisa Kun 2007K07
         |--E. quadrinotellaK07
         |    |--E. q. quadrinotellaK07
         |    `--E. q. heratella Amsel 1969K07
         |--E. sattleri Kun 2007K07
         |--E. sibirica Danilevsky 1975K07
         |--E. similis Sattler 1967K07
         |--E. soljanikovi Danilevsky & Zagulajev 1975K07
         |--E. sphaerostichaNC91
         |--E. suspecta Sattler 1967K07
         |--E. thoraeaNC91
         |--E. turkmeniella Dubatolov & Ustjuzhanin 1997K07
         |--E. viduaK07
         |    |--E. v. viduaK07
         |    `--E. v. flavilaterella Danilevsky 1975K07
         `--E. wurtseri Amsel 1956K07

*Type species of generic name indicated


[G63] Gozmány, L. A. 1963. The family Symmocidae and the description of new taxa mainly from the Near East (Lepidoptera). Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 9 (1–2): 67–134.

[K07] Kun, A. 2007. Studies on Palaearctic Ethmia Hübner, 1819 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae). Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 99: 101–114.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

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