Female Methocha japonica, from here.

Belongs within: Aculeata.
Contains: Apoidea, Formicidae, Scoliidae, Vespidae, Pompiloidea, Tiphiidae, Thynninae.

The Euaculeata are a major clade of stinging wasps, united by sexually dimorphic antennae with thirteen antennomeres in males and twelve in males, and a hidden and largely desclerotised seventh metasomal tergum in females (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). The earliest members of the clade developed as parasitoids of other insects but multiple derived subgroups construct nests in which the females sequester food for the larvae (Johnson et al. 2013).

<==Euaculeata [Formicina, Heterogyna, Melliniores, Mutillariae, Praedones, Scolietae, Sphegimae]GE05
    |  i. s.: FalsiformicidaeGE05
    |           |--Falsiformica cretacea Rasnitsyn 1975P92
    |           `--Taimyrisphex pristinus Evans 1973P92
    |  |  `--+--FormicidaeBD17
    |  |     `--Armania [Armaniidae]GE05
    |  |          `--A. robustaGE05
    |  `--ScolioideaBD17
    |       |--ScoliidaeJB13
    |       `--BradynobaenidaeJB13
    |            |--Typhoctes [Typhoctinae]GE05
    |            `--Apterogyna [Apterogyninae]JB13
    |                 `--A. olivieri [=Mutilla (Apterogyna) olivieri]G20
       |     |--VespidaeJB13
       |     `--+--RhopalosomatidaeJB13
       |        |    |--Rhopalosoma nearcticumHH07
       |        |    |--Mesorhopalosoma cearae Darling in Darling & Sharkey 1990RJ93
       |        |    |--PropalosomaGE05
       |        |    |--Olixon [incl. Psyllosphex Arnold 1935]S94
       |        |    `--Harpagocryptus australiaeR70
       |        `--ScolebythidaeHR11
       |             |  i. s.: Libanobythus Prentice & Poinar in Prentice, Poinar & Milki 1996PPM96
       |             |           `--*L. milkii Prentice & Poinar in Prentice, Poinar & Milki 1996PPM96
       |             |         Dominibythus Prentice & Poinar in Prentice, Poinar & Milki 1996PPM96
       |             |           `--*D. inopinatus Prentice & Poinar in Prentice, Poinar & Milki 1996PPM96
       |             |         Boreobythus Engel & Grimaldi 2007B11
       |             |         Cretabythus sibiricus Evans 1973P92
       |             |--+--Clystopsenella Kieffer 1911B11
       |             |  |    `--C. longiventrisPPM96
       |             |  `--Scolebythus Evans 1963B11
       |             |       `--S. madecassusHR11
       |             `--+--Ycaploca Nagy 1975B11
       |                |    `--Y. evansiGE05
       |                `--Pristapenesia Brues 1933B11
       |                     |--P. inopinataB11
       |                     `--P. primaevaB11
       `--+--SierolomorphaGE05 [Sierolomorphidae, SierolomorphoideaBD17]
          |    |--S. bicolorB11
          |    `--S. canadensisB11
                     |--ChyphotesJB13 [ChyphotidaeBD17, Chyphotinae]
                     |    `--C. mellipesRBV08
                          |  `--Methocha Latreille 1804BD17, LB08 [MethochinaeN91, Methocidae]
                          |       |--M. articulataPK17
                          |       |--M. formicaria (Linnaeus 1758)G20, L58 [=Mutilla formicariaG20]
                          |       |--M. ichneumonidesA71
                          |       |--M. mutillarisR26
                          |       |--M. japonicaS94
                          |       `--M. yasumatsuiS94
                          `--Myzininae [Elidinae]LA21
                               |    |--‘Myzine’ ceylonica Cameron 1900C00
                               |    |--M. frontaleS94
                               |    |--‘Myzine’ fuscipennisC00
                               |    `--M. quinquecinctum (Fabricius 1775) [=Tiphia quinquecincta, Sphex quinquecinctus]BM76
                                    |--*E. sexcincta [=Scolia sexcincta]B28
                                    |--E. cylindricaR26
                                    |--E. maculataR26
                                    `--E. sexmaculata [incl. E. interrupta]RD77

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B28] Betrem, J. G. 1928. Monographie der Indo-Australischen Scoliiden mit zoogeographischen Betrachtungen. H. Veenman & Zonen: Wageningen.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[BD17] Branstetter, M. G., B. N. Danforth, J. P. Pitts, B. C. Faircloth, P. S. Ward, M. L. Buffington, M. W. Gates, R. R. Kula & S. G. Brady. 2017. Phylogenomic insights into the evolution of stinging wasps and the origins of ants and bees. Current Biology 27: 1019–1025.

[B11] Brothers, D. J. 2011. A new Late Cretaceous family of Hymenoptera, and phylogeny of the Plumariidae and Chrysidoidea (Aculeata). ZooKeys 130: 515–542.

[C00] Cameron, P. 1900. Descriptions of new genera and species of aculeate Hymenoptera from the Oriental zoological region. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 5: 17–41.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HR11] Heraty, J., F. Ronquist, J. M. Carpenter, D. Hawks, S. Schulmeister, A. P. Dowling, D. Murray, J. Munro, W. C. Wheeler, N. Schiff & M. Sharkey. 2011. Evolution of the hymenopteran megaradiation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 60: 73–88.

[HH07] Hines, H. M., J. H. Hunt, T. K. O’Connor, J. J. Gillespie & S. A. Cameron. 2007. Multigene phylogeny reveals eusociality evolved twice in vespid wasps. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 104 (9): 3295–3299.

[JB13] Johnson, B. R., M. L. Borowiec, J. C. Chiu, E. K. Lee, J. Atallah & P. S. Ward. 2013. Phylogenomics resolves evolutionary relationships among ants, bees, and wasps. Current Biology 23: 2058–2062.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[N91] Naumann, I. D. 1991. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants, sawflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 916–1000. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[PK17] Peters, R. S., L. Krogmann, C. Mayer, A. Donath, S. Gunkel, K. Meusemann, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, M. Petersen, R. Lanfear, P. A. Diez, J. Heraty, K. M. Kjer, S. Klopfstein, R. Meier, C. Polidori, T. Schmitt, S. Liu, X. Zhou, T. Wappler, J. Rust, B. Misof & O. Niehuis. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27 (7): 1013–1018.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[PPM96] Prentice, M. A., G. O. Poinar, Jr & R. Milki. 1996. Fossil scolebythids (Hymenoptera: Scolebythidae) from Lebanese and Dominican amber. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (4): 801–811.

[RBV08] Rabeling, C., J. M. Brown & M. Verhaagh. 2008. Newly discovered sister lineage sheds light on early ant evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 105 (39): 14913–14917.

[R70] Riek, E. F. 1970. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 867–959. Melbourne University Press.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S94] Shimizu, A. 1994. Phylogeny and classification of the family Pompilidae (Hymenoptera). Tokyo Metropolitan University Bulletin of Natural History 2: 1–142.

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