Euapocynoidina

Secamone elliptica, copyright Mark Marathon.

Belongs within: Apocynoidina.
Contains: Periplocoideae, Echiteae, SarcostemmaDuvaliaEchidnopsis, Asclepiadoideae.

The Euapocynoidina were defined by Sennblad & Bremer (2002) as the largest clade within Apocynaceae including Apocynum and Echites but not Malouetieae, Wrightieae or Nerieae. They are united by the possession of anthers that are adnate to the style head both by the retinacle and by the thecae (Sennblad & Bremer 2002).

As well as more traditionally apocynaceous taxa, the euapocynoids include the milkwort clade Asclepiadacina, previously treated by many authors as a separate family Asclepiadaceae. In most Asclepiadacina (except Baissea) the pollen is agglutinated into pollinia that are connected to a clasping translator. The Secamonoideae are characterised within the Asclepiadacina by four pollinia per translator (Sennblad & Bremer 2002).

The Apocyneae are a clade of species with a style head lacking a stigmatic hollow, in combination with thecae adnate to the style head. The Mesechiteae have anthers with obtuse, truncated tails and a retinacle lacking hairs, and also a strongly pentagonal style head with a stigmatic hollow (Sennblad & Bremer 2002).

<==Euapocynoidina
    |--+--PeriplocoideaeSB02
    |  `--EchiteaeSB02
    |--MesechiteaeSB02
    |    |--Mesechites trifidaSB02
    |    `--MandevillaSB02
    |         |--M. laxa [incl. M. suaveolens]BR65
    |         `--M. sanderiSB02
    |--ApocyneaeSB02
    |    |  i. s.: Chonemorpha fragransSB02, SR07
    |    |         Lyonsia eucalyptifoliaB96
    |    |--Aganosma marginataSB02
    |    `--+--ApocynumSB02
    |       |    |--A. androsaemifolium [incl. A. medium var. floribundum, A. androsaemifolium var. glabrum, A. pumilum]H93
    |       |    |--A. cannabinum [incl. A. cannabinum var. glaberrimum, A. sibiricum var. salignum]H93
    |       |    |--A. lancifoliumP93
    |       |    |--A. scabrumP93
    |       |    `--A. venetumC55
    |       `--+--BeaumontiaSB02
    |          |    |--B. grandifloraSB02
    |          |    `--B. multifloraT-W89
    |          `--+--Rhabdadenia Muell. Arg. in Mart. 1860SB02, L95
    |             |    `--R. biflora (Jacq.) Muell.-Arg. in Mart. 1860 [=Echites biflora Jacq. 1760]L95
    |             `--TrachelospermumSB02
    |                  |--T. asiaticumRA07
    |                  `--T. jasminoidesSB02
    `--Asclepiadacina [Asclepiadaceae]SB02
         |  i. s.: Finlaysonia obovataP88
         |         Pentagonium Schauer 1843FT93
         |         Rhyncharrhena linearisB00
         |         SarcostemmaB00
         |         PentatropisBR65
         |           |--P. atropurpurea Mueller 1869BR65
         |           |--P. kempeana Mueller 1882 [=Daemia kempeana]BR65
         |           |--P. quinquepartita Mueller 1869BR65
         |           `--P. spiralisPP07
         |         LeptadeniaPP07
         |           |--L. hastataGC05
         |           |--L. pyrotechnicaPP07
         |           `--L. reticulataPP07
         |         Holostemma annulareP03
         |         Heterostemma acuminatumB00
         |         BrachystelmaB00
         |           |--B. blepharantheraCV06
         |           |--B. codonanthumCV06
         |           |--B. dinteriJ54
         |           |--B. glabriflorumB00
         |           |--B. grossartiJ54
         |           |--B. recurvatumCV06
         |           |--B. schinziiCV06
         |           `--B. schultzeiCV06
         |         Gunnessia pepoB00
         |         GymnantheraB00
         |           |--G. cunninghamiiB00
         |           |--G. nitidaF91
         |           `--G. oblongaB00
         |         Asclepiadites laterita MacGinitie 1941CBH93
         |         Polyporotetradites laevigatus Salard-Cheboldaeff 1978CBH93
         |         Eustegia Br. 1810KC01
         |         Thozetia Muell. ex Benth. 1868KC01
         |         Cryptostegia Brown 1820L95
         |           |--C. grandiflora Brown 1820L95
         |           `--C. madagascariensis Bojer ex Decne. in DC. 1844L95
         |                |--C. m. var. madagascariensisLK14
         |                `--C. m. var. glaberrimaLK14
         |         Oxypetalum Brown 1810 (nom. cons.)L95
         |           `--O. cordifolium (Vent.) Schltr. in Urban 1899 (see below for synonymy)L95
         |         Decanema bojerianaJ54
         |         Diplocyatha ciliata [=Podanthes ciliata, Stapelia ciliata, Tromotriche ciliata]J54
         |         Drakebrockmania crassa [=Caralluma crassa]J54
         |         EdithcoleaJ54
         |           |--E. grandisJ54
         |           `--E. sordidaJ54
         |         HoodiaJ54
         |           |--H. juttaeCV06
         |           |--H. officinalisCV06
         |           |    |--H. o. ssp. officinalisCV06
         |           |    `--H. o. ssp. delaetianaCV06
         |           |--H. ruschiiCV06
         |           `--H. triebneriCV06
         |         HoodiopsisJ54
         |         HuerniaJ54
         |           |--H. halliiCV06
         |           `--H. plowesiiCV06
         |         HuerniopsisJ54
         |         KinepetalumJ54
         |         LuckhoffiaJ54
         |         SiphonostelmaJ54
         |         StapelianthusJ54
         |         Stapeliopsis urnifloraJ54, CV06
         |         TavaresiaJ54
         |         TrichocaulonJ54
         |         DuvaliaJ54
         |         EchidnopsisJ54
         |         MeliniaS16
         |           |--M. glazioviiS16
         |           `--M. peruviana Schlechter 1916S16
         |         Glossonema gautheriD17
         |           |--G. g. var. gauthieriD17
         |           `--G. g. var. titensisD17
         |         Solenostemma argelD17
         |--+--Baissea leonensisSB02
         |  `--AsclepiadoideaeTGL-S08
         `--Secamonoideae [Secamoneae]TGL-S08
              |--Pervillea tomentosaTGL-S08
              `--SecamoneTGL-S08
                   |--S. afzeliiSB02
                   |--S. alpiniTGL-S08
                   |--S. ellipticaB00
                   |--S. emeticaA78
                   |--S. filiformisTGL-S08
                   |--S. geayiSB02
                   `--S. timoriensisLK14

Oxypetalum cordifolium (Vent.) Schltr. in Urban 1899 [=Gothofreda cordifolia Vent. 1803; incl. O. riparium HBK. 1819]L95

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A78] Ananthakrishnan, T. N. 1978. Thrips galls and gall thrips. Zoological Survey of India, Technical Monograph 1: 1–69, 26 pls.

[B96] Baker, R. T. 1896. On the botany of Rylstone and the Goulburn River districts. Part I. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 21 (3): 427–466.

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[D17] Diels, L. 1917. Beiträge zur Flora der Zentral-Sahara und ihrer Pflanzengeographie. Nach der Sammelausbeute des Freiherrn Hans Geyr von Schweppenburg. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 54 (Beiblatt 120): 51–155.

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i–viii, 1–351.

[F91] Forster, P. I. 1991. Host plant records (family Asclepiadaceae) for Pyrausta incoloralis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Australian Entomological Magazine 18 (1): 25–26.

[GC05] Granjon, L., J.-F. Cosson, E. Quesseveur & B. Sicard. 2005. Population dynamics of the multimammate rat Mastomys huberti in an annually flooded agricultural region of central Mali. Journal of Mammalogy 86 (5): 997–1008.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[J54] Jacobsen, H. 1954. Handbuch der sukkulenten Pflanzen: Beschreibung und Kultur der Sukkulenten mit Ausnahme der Cactaceae vol. 1. Abromeitiella bis Euphorbia. Gustav Fischer Verlag: Jena.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[L95] Liogier, H. A. 1995. Descriptive Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands: Spermatophyta-Dicotyledoneae vol. 4. Melastomataceae to Lentibulariaceae. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P., & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 15–78.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 121–142.

[P93] Pittaway, A. R. 1993. The Hawkmoths of the Western Palaearctic. Harley Books: Colchester.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[RA07] Rodrigues, J. C. V., D. Achor, E. W. Kitajima, N. L. Nogueira & C. C. Childers. 2007. Plant diseases and injuries associated with Brevipalpus mites. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 381–390. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 165–172.

[S16] Schlechter, R. 1916. Asclepiadaceae andinae. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 54 (Beiblatt 119): 1–2.

[SB02] Sennblad, B., & B. Bremer. 2002. Classification of Apocynaceae s.l. according to a new approach combining Linnaean and phylogenetic taxonomy. Systematic Biology 51 (3): 389–409.

[T-W89] Tenison-Woods, J. E. 1889. On the vegetation of Malaysia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (1): 9–106, pls 1–9.

[TGL-S08] Thulin, M., D. Goyder & S. Liede-Schumann. 2008. Cibirhiza spiculata (Apocynaceae), a remarkable new species from eastern Ethiopia. Kew Bulletin 63 (4): 617–624.

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