Eucalyptus

 Thick-leaved mahogany Eucalyptus carnea, copyright Ian Brooker & David Kleinig.

Belongs within: Eucalypteae.
Contains: Eucalyptus section Eucalyptus, Eucalyptus section Aromatica, Eucalyptus section Capillulus, Eucalyptus section Cineraceae, Eucalyptus section Longistylus, Eucalyptus section Abbreviatae, Eucalyptus section Limbatae, Eucalyptus section Reticulatae, Eucalyptus section Bisectae, Eucalyptus section Adnataria, Eucalyptus section Dumaria, Eucalyptus section Exsertaria, Eucalyptus section Latoangulatae, Eucalyptus section Maidenaria.

Eucalyptus is a large genus of more than 700 species of trees and shrubs, mostly native to Australia (with a very few reaching into insular south-east Asia). Many species in the genus are also grown outside their native range as timber trees. Many species of the genus are commonly known as ‘gum trees’ for their production of copious gum through breaks in the bark. Eucalyptus species that are multi-stemmed from ground level are commonly referred to as ‘mallees’. Many species of Eucalyptus have well-developed oil glands on the leaves that give them a very characteristic scent, and vapour from this oil has long been used to relieve colds and other mucus build-ups. However, the flammability of eucalyptus oil can exacerbate the spread of fire in eucalyptus forests; the trees themselves can often recover from fires by the production of epicormic growth from beneath burnt bark.

The name ‘Eucalyptus‘, meaning ‘true covering’, refers to the operculum formed of fused sepals that covers the stamens and ovary in many species during flower development before being shed at maturity. In members of the subgenus Symphyomyrtus, a double operculum is present with the outer operculum being shed early in development. In the subgenus Eucalyptus, only a single operculum is present at any point in development. The outer floral whorl is absent or retained as unfused sepals, with the inner whorl opercular, in the subgenus Eudesmia. In E. cloezianaE. microcorys and E. tenuipes, the sepals remain unfused but are minute and shed early in bud development. Eucalyptus cloeziana, Gympie messmate, bears flowers in compound, axillary inflorescences. Eucalyptus curtisii differs from other members of the genus in the production of acicular seeds and hence is awarded its own subgenus Acerosae. Members of subgenus Blakella are distinguished by cotyledons that lie flat in the embryo whereas they are more or less folded in other subgenera (Brooker 2000).

<==Eucalyptus L’Héritier de Brutelle 1789Bro00
|--E. subg. EucalyptusWFM06
| |--E. sect. EucalyptusBro00
| |--E. sect. Amentum Brooker 2000Bro00
| | |--+--E. (sect. *A.) umbraBro00
| | | `--E. carneaBro00
| | `--+--E. acmenoidesBro00
| | |--E. apothalassicaBro00
| | `--E. psammiticaBro00
| |--E. sect. AromaticaBro00
| |--E. sect. CapillulusBro00
| |--E. sect. CineraceaeBro00
| |--E. sect. Insolitae Brooker 2000 [=E. ser. Planchonianae Chippendale 1988]Bro00
| | `--E. (sect. *I.) planchoniana [=E. (ser. *Planchonianae) planchoniana]Bro00
| |--E. sect. LongistylusBro00
| |--E. ser. Longitudinales (Blakely) Brooker 2000 (see below for synonymy)Bro00
| | |--E. mitchellianaBro00
| | `--+--E. (sect. *L.) stellulata [=E. (subser. *Cylindriformes) stellulata]Bro00
| | `--E. mooreiBro00
| |--E. sect. Nebulosa Brooker 2000 [=E. ser. Olsenianae Chippendale 1988]Bro00
| | `--E. (sect. *N.) olsenii [=E. (ser. *Olsenianae) olsenii]Bro00
| |--E. sect. Pedaria Johnson ex Brooker 2000Bro00
| | `--E. (sect. *P.) brevistylisBro00
| `--E. sect. Pseudophloius Brooker 2000Bro00
| |--E. (sect. *P.) pilularisBro00
| `--E. pyrocarpaBro00
|--E. subg. Acerosae Brooker 2000 [=E. ser. Curtisianae Chippendale 1988]Bro00
| `--E. (subg. *A.) curtisii [=E. (ser. *Curtisianae) curtisii]Bro00
|--E. subg. Alveolata (Maiden) Brooker 2000 [=E. ser. Alveolatae Maiden 1929, E. ser. Steatoxylon Blakely 1934]Bro00
| `--E. (subg. *A.) microcorys [=E. (ser. *Alveolatae) microcorys, E. (ser. *Steatoxylon) microcorys]Bro00
|--E. subg. Blakella Pryor & Johnson ex Brooker 2000Bro00
| |--E. sect. AbbreviataeBro00
| `--E. sect. Extensae Brooker 2000 [=E. subser. Tessellatae Blakely 1934]Bro00
| |--E. (sect. *E.) tessellarisBro00 [=Corymbia tessellarisBra00, E. (subser. *Tessellatae) tessellarisBro00]
| |--E. bella (Hill & Johnson) Brooker 2000 [=Corymbia bella Hill & Johnson 2000]Bro00
| `--E. papuanaBro00 [incl. E. tesselaris var. dallachianaM16, E. clavigera var. dallachianaM16]
|--E. subg. Cruciformes Brooker 2000 (see below for synonymy)Bro00
| `--E. (subg. *C.) guilfoylei [=E. (subsect. *Papilionantherae subser. *Ochroxylon) guilfoylei]Bro00
|--E. subg. Cuboidea Brooker 2000Bro00
| `--E. (subg. *C.) tenuipesBro00
|--E. subg. Eudesmia (Brown) Johnson & Hill 1998 (see below for synonymy)Bro00
| |--E. sect. LimbataeBro00
| |--E. sect. Complanatae Brooker 2000 [=E. ser. Tetrodontae Chippendale 1988]Bro00
| | `--E. (sect. *C.) tetrodonta [=E. (ser. *Tetrodontae) tetrodonta]Bro00
| |--E. sect. Ebbanoenses (Chippendale) Brooker 2000 [=E. ser. Ebbanoenses Chippendale 1988]Bro00
| | `--E. (sect. *E.) ebbanoensisBro00
| | |--E. e. ssp. ebbanoensisG04a
| | `--E. e. ssp. glauciramulaG04a
| `--E. sect. ReticulataeBro00
|--E. subg. Idiogenes Pryor & Johnson ex Brooker 2000 [=E. subser. Megalanthae Blakely 1934]Bro00
| `--E. (subg. *I.) cloeziana [=E. (subser. *Megalanthae) cloeziana]Bro00
|--E. subg. Minutifructus Brooker 2000Bro00
| |--E. sect. Domesticae Brooker 2000 (see below for synonymy)Bro00
| | |--E. (subg. *M. sect. *D.) brachyandra [=E. (subsect. *Brachyandrae) brachyandra]Bro00
| | |--E. howittiana [=E. (ser. *Howittianae) howittiana]Bro00
| | `--E. raveretianaBro00
| `--E. sect. Equatoria Pryor & Johnson ex Brooker 2000 [=E. ser. Myrtiformes Blakely 1934]Bro00
| `--E. (sect. *E.) deglupta [=E. (ser. *Myrtiformes) deglupta]Bro00
|--E. subg. Primitiva Brooker 2000 [=E. ser. Rubiginosae Chippendale 1988]Bro00
| `--E. (subg. *P.) rubiginosa [=E. (ser. *Rubiginosae) rubiginosa]Bro00
`--E. subg. Symphyomyrtus (Schauer) Brooker 2000 [=Symphyomyrtus Schauer in Lehmann 1844]Bro00
|--E. sect. BisectaeBro00
|--E. sect. AdnatariaBro00
|--E. sect. Bolites Brooker 2000Bro00
| `--E. (sect. *B.) gomphocephalaBro00
|--E. sect. DumariaBro00
|--E. sect. ExsertariaBro00
|--E. sect. Inclusae (Benth.) Chippendale 1988 [=E. subser. Inclusae Benth. 1867]Bro00
| `--E. (sect. *I.) diversicolorBro00
|--E. sect. Incognitae (Nicolle) Brooker 2000 [=E. ser. Incognitae Nicolle 1995]Bro00
| |--E. (sect. *I.) cosmophyllaBro00
| `--E. paludicolaBro00
|--E. sect. LatoangulataeBro00
|--E. sect. Liberivalvae (Blakely) Brooker 2000 [=E. subser. Liberivalvae Blakely 1934]Bro00
| |--E. parramattensisBro00
| |--+--E. (sect. *L.) bancroftiiBro00
| | `--E. pravaBro00
| `--+--E. interstansBro00
| `--E. seeana Maiden 1904Bro00, M16
|--E. sect. MaidenariaBro00
|--E. sect. Platysperma Brooker 2000 [=E. ser. Brevifoliae Brooker & Slee 1994]Bro00
| |--E. rupestrisBro00
| |--E. umbrawarrensisBro00
| `--+--E. (sect. *P.) brevifoliaBro00 [=E. (ser. *Brevifoliae) brevifoliaBro00, E. tereticornis var. brevifoliaC08]
| |--E. confluens Fitzgerald in Maiden 1916Bro00, M16
| |--E. leucophloiaBro00
| `--E. ordianaBro00
|--E. sect. Pumilio Brooker 2000 [=E. ser. Pumilae Chippendale 1988]Bro00
| `--E. (sect. *P.) pumila [=E. (ser. *Pumilae) pumila]Bro00
|--E. sect. Racemus Brooker 2000 [=E. ser. Michaelianae Chippendale 1988]Bro00
| `--E. (sect. *R.) michaeliana [=E. (ser. *Michaelianae) michaeliana]Bro00
|--E. sect. Sejunctae Brooker 2000 [=E. ser. Microcorythae Blakely 1934]Bro00
| `--E. (sect. *S.) cladocalyxBro00 [=E. (ser. *Microcorythae) cladocalyxBro00; incl. E. corynocalyxH93]
`--E. sect. Similares Brooker 2000Bro00
`--E. (sect. *S.) longifoliaBro00

Eucalyptus incertae sedis:
E. alipesG04b
E. andreanaMH98
E. australiana Baker & Smith 1916 [=E. amygdalina var. australiana]BS16
E. bicolorR35
E. brachyphyllaBro00
E. cajuputeaM16
E. cnerifoliaM16
E. coriaceaH42
E. corymbosaH42
E. crassifolia (Leach) Brooker 2000 (see below for synonymy)Bro00
E. dongarraensisK90
E. drepanophyllaBra00
E. elaeophoraH42
E. erythrandraBro00
E. eudesmoidesK90
E. euryphylla (Johnson ex Leach) Brooker 2000 [=Angophora costata ssp. euryphylla Johson ex Leach 1986]Bro00
E. exul (Hill) Brooker 2000 [=Angophora exul Hill 1997]Bro00
E. fitzgeraldiiLK14
E. giganteaH42
E. glomericassisLK14
E. grasbyiG04a
E. gratiaeG04b
E. hayi Ettingshausen 1886F71
E. hemiphloiaH42
E. houtmanni Ettingshausen 1886F71
E. hybridaSK02
E. inopina (Hill) Brooker 2000 [=Angophora inopina Hill 1997]Bro00
E. kenneallyiLK14
E. leiocarpa (Johnson ex Leach) Brooker 2000 (see below for synonymy)Bro00
E. micranthaW95 [=E. haemastoma var. micranthaB96]
E. mitchellii Ettingshausen 1886F71
E. moderataG04a
E. myrtellaB88
E. opacaE19
E. pallidifoliaC16
E. palustris Brooker 2000 (see below for synonymy)Bro00
E. pantoleucaLK14
E. paucifoliaF49
E. phaeotrichaW95
E. polyanthemaB96
|--E. p. var. polyanthemaB96
`--E. p. var. glauca Baker 1896B96
E. populifoliaB88
E. repullulansEF04
E. robur (Johnson & Hill) Brooker 2000 [=Angophora robur Johnson & Hill 1990]Bro00
E. rostrataW95
E. royceiK90
E. rugulataG04b
E. sieberiana [incl. E. virgata]M90
E. sporadicaG04b
E. stuartianaB88
|--E. s. var. stuartianaM16
`--E. s. var. parvifloraM16
E. subtenuisG04b
E. tephrodesMLP09
E. thamnoidesOS04
|--E. t. ssp. thamnoidesOS04
`--E. t. ssp. megistaOS04
E. triantha [incl. E. acmenioides]M90
E. umbellataB88
E. urnaG04b
E. xerothermicaMLP09

Eucalyptus crassifolia (Leach) Brooker 2000 [=Angophora bakeri ssp. crassifolia Leach 1986, A. crassifolia (Leach) Johnson & Hill 1990]Bro00

Eucalyptus leiocarpa (Johnson ex Leach) Brooker 2000 [=Angophora costata ssp. leiocarpa Johnson ex Leach 1986, A. costata (Johnson ex Leach) Thiele & Ladiges 1988]Bro00

Eucalyptus palustris Brooker 2000 [=Angophora bakeri ssp. paludosa Leach 1986 non Eucalyptus paludosa Baker 1898, A. paludosa (Leach) Thiele & Ladiges 1988]Bro00

Eucalyptus subg. Cruciformes Brooker 2000 [=E. subser. Ochroxylon Blakely 1934, E. subsect. Papilionantherae Blakely 1934]Bro00

Eucalyptus sect. Domesticae Brooker 2000 [=E. subsect. Brachyandrae Maiden 1924; incl. E. ser. Howittianae Chippendale 1988]Bro00

Eucalyptus subg. Eudesmia (Brown) Johnson & Hill 1998 [=Eudesmia Br. in Flinders 1814, Euc. subser. Eudesmiae Benth. 1867, Euc. ser. Eudesmiae Blakely 1934]Bro00

Eucalyptus sect. Longitudinales (Blakely) Brooker 2000 [=E. ser. Longitudinales Blakely 1934, E. subser. Cylindriformes Blakely 1934]Bro00

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B96] Baker, R. T. 1896. On the botany of Rylstone and the Goulburn River districts. Part I. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 21 (3): 427–466.

[BS16] Baker, R. T., & H. G. Smith. 1916. Eucalyptus australiana, sp. nov. (“narrow-leaved peppermint”) and its essential oil. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 49 (3): 514–525.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[Bra00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[Bro00] Brooker, M. I. H. 2000. A new classification of the genus Eucalyptus L’Hér. (Myrtaceae). Australian Systematic Botany 13: 79–148.

[C08] Cambage, R. H. 1908. Notes on the native flora of New South Wales. Part VI. Deepwater to Torrington and Emmaville. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33 (1): 45–65, pls 1–2.

[C16] Cambage, R. H. 1916. Notes on the native flora of tropical Queensland. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 49 (3): 389–447, pls 57–61.

[E19] Ellis, R. J. 2019. A typhlopid hotspot in the tropics: increased blindsnake diversity in the Kimberley region of Western Australia with the description of a new Anilios species (Serpentes: Typhlopidae). Records of the Western Australian Museum 34 (1): 31–37.

[EF04] Etten, E. J. B. van, & J. E. D. Fox. 2004. Vegetation classification and ordination of the central Hamersley Ranges, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 63–79.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[F49] Forster, R. R. 1949. Australian Opiliones. Memoirs of the National Museum of Victoria 16: 59–89.

[G04a] Gibson, N. 2004a. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35–47.

[G04b] Gibson, N. 2004b. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49–62.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[H42] Hill, G. F. 1942. Termites (Isoptera) from the Australian Region (including Australia, New Guinea and islands south of the Equator between 140°E. longitude and 170°W. longitude). Commonwealth of Australia Council for Scientific and Industrial Research: Melbourne.

[K90] Keighery, G. J. 1990. Vegetation and flora of Shark Bay, Western Australia. In: Berry, P. F., S. D. Bradshaw & B. R. Wilson (eds) Research in Shark Bay: Report of the France-Australe Bicentenary Expedition Committee pp. 61–87. Western Australian Museum.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[M90] Maiden, J. H. 1890. The examination of kinos as an aid in the diagnosis of eucalypts. Part I.—The ruby group. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (3): 605–618.

[M16] Maiden, J. H. 1916. Notes on Eucalyptus (with descriptions of new species) no. IV. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 49 (3): 309–331.

[MLP09] McKenzie, N. L., S. van Leeuwen & A. M. Pinder. 2009. Introduction to the Pilbara Biodiversity Survey, 2002–2007. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 78 (1): 3–89.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[R35] Rayment, T. 1935. A Cluster of Bees: Sixty essays on the life-histories of Australian bees, with specific descriptions of over 100 new species. Endeavour Press: Sydney.

[SK02] Sumithramma, N., A. R. V. Kumar, K. Chandrashekara & D. Rajagopal. 2002. Plant selection for nesting by Oecophylla smaragdina, Hymenoptera: Formicidae: do physical features affect the choice of the plant? Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 408–412.

[W95] Wang, Q. 1995. A taxonomic revision of the Australian genus Phoracantha Newman (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Invertebrate Taxonomy 9: 865–958.

[WFM06] Wheeler, M. A., M. M. Fairbanks & J. A. McComb. 2006. Low success of controlled pollination in Eucalyptus marginata (jarrah). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (3): 101–108.

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