Male European earwig Forficula auricularia, photographed by Eugene Zelenko.

Belongs within: Neodermaptera.

The Eudermaptera are a clade of earwigs characterised by the reduction of the male genitalia to a single penal lobe and single virga, and having the expanded regions of the anal and intercalary veins distinctly separated (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). In members of the families Chelisochidae and Forficulidae, the second segment of the tarsi is ventrally produced below the third but members of the Labioidea retain a simple, subcylindrical second tarsal segment. Forficulidae have the second tarsal segment expanded laterally as well as produced (Rentz & Kevan 1991). The European earwig Forficula auricularia has become distributed almost worldwide in association with humans (Rentz & Kevan 1971).

The Labioidea are now regarded as including the genus Arixenia, specialised cave-dwellers found in bat-roosts in southeast Asia that feed on guano and (in the case of A. esau) perhaps facultatively on the bats themselves (Askew 1971). Nesogaster is a labioid genus distinguished by the possession of smooth tegmina bearing lateral keels (Rentz & Kevan 1991).

| i. s.: Chelisoficula Nel, Waller et al. 2003NW03
| `--*C. caussaneli Nel, Waller et al. 2003NW03
| |--Carcinophoridae [Carcinophorinae]RD77
| |--ArixeniaRK91 [ArixeniidaeGE05, Arixeniina]
| | |--A. esauRK91
| | `--A. jacobsoniA71
| |--SpongiphoridaeGE05
| | | i. s.: Sinolabia longyouensisS02
| | | Auchenomus forcipatusTW05
| | | Paralabella murrayi (Kirby 1900) (see below for synonymy)JG19
| | |--SpongiphorinaeRK91
| | | |--ApovostoxRK91
| | | `--Marava arachidisRK91
| | `--Nesogaster [Nesogastrinae]RK91
| | |--N. erichsoniG74
| | |--N. halliRK91
| | `--N. ruficepsRK91
| `--LabiidaeS02
| | i. s.: CretolabiaS02
| | CaririlabiaS02
| | SpongovostoxNW03
| | |--S. cornutus Brindle 1973NW03
| | `--S. doddiZS10
| | Prolabia arachidis (Yersin 1860) [=Forficula arachidis, Labia arachidis]H40
| |--Nesolabia [Geracinae]NW03
| | `--N. longicollis Hincks 1957NW03
| `--LabiinaeRK91
| |--Chaetospania brunneriRK91
| `--LabiaGE05
| |--L. canaca Burr 1903B14
| |--L. curvicaudataGE05
| `--L. minorB01
`--+--Chelisochidae [Chelisochinae]NW03
| |--Chelisochella superba (Dorhn 1865)NW03
| |--Schizoproreus delicatulus (Burr 1911)NW03
| |--Adiathetus glaucopterus (Bormans 1888)NW03
| |--Genitalata mahajani Kapoor 1974NW03
| |--Proreus simulans (Stål 1860)NW03
| |--LamprophorellaRK91
| |--Chelisoches Scudder 1876NW03
| | `--C. morio (Fabricius 1775) [incl. Labidura nigricornis Kirby 1889]JG19
| `--HamaxasNW03
| |--H. bidentatus Ramamurthi 1965NW03
| `--H. singhi Kapoor 1966NW03
| i. s.: Anechura bipunctataB01
| Elaunon bipartitusRK91
| Hadanechura Zhang et al. 1994NW03
| `--*H. sisypha Zhang et al. 1994NW03
| Apanechura Zhang 1989NW03
| |--A. asceta Zhang 1989NW03
| `--A. ooides Zhang 1989NW03
| ForficesilaL49
| |--F. gigantea (see below for synonymy)L49
| |--F. maritimaL49
| |--F. mauritanica Lucas 1846E12
| |--F. meridionalisL49
| `--F. vicina Lucas 1846E12
| |--EparchusH40
| | |--E. biroiTW05
| | `--E. insignis (Haan 1842) [=Forficula insignis]H40
| `--TimomenusH40
| |--T. pieli Hincks 1940H40
| |--T. shelfordi (Burr 1904) [=Opisthocosmia shelfordi]H40
| `--T. unidentatus Borelli 1915H40
`--Forficula Linnaeus 1758 [Forficulinae]NW03
|--F. auricularia Linnaeus 1758L58
|--F. balticaP92
|--F. decipiensW07
|--F. klebsiP92
|--F. minor Linnaeus 1758L58
|--F. paleocaenica Willmann 1990NW03
|--F. praecursorP92
|--F. pristinaP92
`--F. tomisS02

Forficesila gigantea [=Forficula gigantea; incl. Forficula crenata, Forficula maxima, Psalis morbida, Forficula pallipes]L49

Paralabella murrayi (Kirby 1900) [=Labia murrayi; incl. L. incerta Kirby 1900, L. indistincta Kirby 1900, L. intermedius]JG19

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B01] Bolivar, I. 1901. Orthopterák [Orthoptères]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 223–243. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[B14] Burr, M. 1914. Les Dermaptères de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et des îles Loyalty. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 4 pp. 315–324, pl. 9. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[G74] Giles, E. T. 1974. Dermaptera (earwigs). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 42–43.Melbourne University Press.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H40] Hincks, W. D. 1940. Dermaptera (earwigs) from Hainan Island. Notes d’Entomologie Chinoise 8 (2): 29–40.

[JG19] James, D. J., P. T. Green, W. F. Humphreys & J. C. Z. Woinarski. 2019. Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34 (2): 55–114.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis revised 10th ed. vol. 1. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[L49] Lucas, H. 1849. Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie pendant les années 1840, 1841, 1842 publiée par ordre du gouvernement et avec le concours d’une commission académique. Sciences physiques. Zoologie. II. Histoire naturelle des animaux articulés. Troisième partie. Insectes (suite). Imprimerie Nationale: Paris.

[NW03] Nel, A., A. Waller, V. Albouy, J.-J. Menier & G. de Ploëg. 2003. New fossil earwigs from the lowermost Eocene amber of Paris Basin (France) (Insecta, Dermaptera, family incertae sedis). Geodiversitas 25 (1): 119–129.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[RK91] Rentz, D. C. F., & D. K. McE. Kevan. 1991. Dermaptera (earwigs). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 360–368. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[S02] Shcherbakov, D. E. 2002. Order Forficulida Latreille, 1810. The earwigs and protelytropterans (=Dermaptera DeGeer, 1773+Protelytroptera Tillyard, 1931). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 288–291. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240–257.

[W07] Wirth, S. 2007. Phylogeny and character transformations of the Histiostomatidae. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 607–615. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

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