Eugnatha

Gathering of Epinannolene, copyright Karl Questel.

Belongs within: Helminthomorpha.
Contains: Chordeumatida, Polydesmida, Spirobolida, Julida, Spirostreptidae.

The Eugnatha are a clade within the millipedes characterised by modification of the eighth pair of legs in adult males into a pair of functional gonopods, and the fusion of the pleurites to the tergites. Major clades within the Eugnatha include the Nematophora, characterised by the possession of spinnerets, and molar cusps on the mandibles (Sierwald et al. 2003).

<==Eugnatha
    |--NematophoraSS03
    |    |--Stemmiulida [Monocheta]WA04
    |    `--CoelochetaSS03
    |         |--ChordeumatidaWA04
    |         `--CallipodidaWA04
    |              |--Abacion magnumH00
    |              |--DelophonH90
    |              |--TetracionH90
    |              |--TexophonH90
    |              |--TynommaH90
    |              |--DiactisH90
    |              |--HeptiumH90
    |              |--ColactisH90
    |              |--Apfelbeckia Verhoeff 1896H00
    |              |    `--A. hessei Verhoeff 1929UO05
    |              `--Protosylvestria [Dorypetalidae]RB93
    |                   `--P. sculpta Handschin 1944RB93
    `--+--PolydesmidaWA04
       `--Juliformia [Juloidea]SS03
            |--+--SpirobolidaSS03
            |  `--JulidaSS03
            `--SpirostreptidaSS03
                 |  i. s.: Archicambala dawsoni (Scudder 1868)RB93
                 |--SpirostreptidaeH90
                 |--EpinannolenideaH90
                 |    |--Choctella [Choctellidae]H90
                 |    |    `--C. cummingsiH90
                 |    `--Epinannolene [Pseudonannolenidae]K55
                 |         |--E. alticola (Silvestri 1898)K55
                 |         |--E. bifasciata (Silvestri 1898)K54
                 |         |--E. cylidricaulis Kraus 1954K54
                 |         `--E. flagellosa Kraus 1955K55
                 `--CambalideaH00
                      |  i. s.: Protosilvestria Handschin 1944H00
                      |--CambalopsidaeH90
                      |    |--PlusioglyphiulusSGS04
                      |    `--Cambalopsis nordquistiA27
                      `--Cambalidae [Leioderidae, Nannolenidae]H90
                           |--Cambala hubrichtiH00
                           |--AgastrophusB13
                           |--Hypocambala exocoeti (Pocock 1889)B13, JG19 [=Spirostreptus exocoetiJG19, Iulomorpha exocoetiJG19]
                           |--NannoleneH90
                           |--PaiteyaH90
                           |--BuwatiaH90
                           |--PlatydereH90
                           |--PharodereH90
                           |--EndereH90
                           |--LeiodereH90
                           |--OdachurusH90
                           |--AlakeneH90
                           |--DoileneH90
                           |--TigoleneH90
                           |--Amastigogonus Brölemann 1913B13
                           |    `--*A. tasmanianus Brölemann 1913B13
                           |--Dimerogonus Attems 1903B13
                           |    `--*D. orophilusB13
                           `--TitsonaH90
                                |--*T. simaC62
                                `--T. tida Chamberlin 1962C62

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A27] Attems, C. 1927. Myriopoden von Ambon und anderen Inseln der Banda-See. Zoologische Mededeelingen 10: 61–70.

[B13] Brölemann, H. W. 1913. The Myriapoda in the Australian Museum. Part ii. Diplopoda. Records of the Australian Museum 10 (6): 77–158, pls 14–18.

[C62] Chamberlin, R. V. 1962. Millipeds from the Nevada Test Area. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 53–56.

[H00] Hannibal, J. T. 2000. Hexecontasoma, a new helminthomorph millipede (Hexecontasomatidae n. fam.) from the Mazon Creek, Illinois, fauna (Carboniferous, North America). Fragmenta Faunistica 43 (Suppl): 19–35.

[H90] Hoffman, R. L. 1990. Diplopoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 835–860. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[JG19] James, D. J., P. T. Green, W. F. Humphreys & J. C. Z. Woinarski. 2019. Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34 (2): 55–114.

[K54] Kraus, O. 1954. Myriapoden aus Peru, II. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 17–55.

[K55] Kraus, O. 1955. Myriapoden aus Peru, III. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (3–4): 173–200.

[RB93] Ross, A. J., & D. E. G. Briggs. 1993. Arthropoda (Euthycarcinoidea and Myriapoda). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 357–361. Chapman & Hall: London.

[SGS04] Schwendinger, P. J., G. Giribet & H. Steiner. 2004. A remarkable new cave-dwelling Stylocellus (Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi) from peninsular Malaysia, with a discussion on taxonomic characters in the family Stylocellidae. Journal of Natural History 38: 1421–1435.

[SS03] Sierwald, P., W. A. Shear, R. M. Shelley & J. E. Bond. 2003. Millipede phylogeny revisited in the light of the enigmatic order Siphoniulida. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 41: 87–99.

[UO05] Ubick, D., & R. Ozimec. 2005. On the harvestman genus Lola Kratochvíl (Opiliones: Laniatores). Natura Croatica 14 (3): 161–174.

[WA04] Wilson, H. M., & L. I. Anderson. 2004. Morphology and taxonomy of Paleozoic millipedes (Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda) from Scotland. Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 169–184.

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