Eugraptoloida

Clonograptus persistens, from Museum Victoria, photographed by Rodney Start.

Belongs within: Graptoloidea.
Contains: Sinograptidae, Sigmagraptidae, Dichograptinae, Pterograptidae, Reclinata, Didymograptus.

The Eugraptoloida is a clade of planktonic graptolites united by the loss of bithecae in the stipes, defined by Maletz et al. (2009) as the smallest clade containing Nicholsonograptus fasciculatus and Exigraptus uniformis. The two basal branches within this clade are the Pan-Reclinata, with symmetrical proximal branching, and the Sinograpta, in which the proximal branches are often highly asymmetrical (Maletz et al. 2009).

<==Eugraptoloida [Dichograptacea, Didymograpti, Goniograpti, Leptograptina, Phyllograptidae]
    |--Sinograpta [Pan-Sinograpta]MCM09
    |    |--SinograptidaeMCM09
    |    |--SigmagraptidaeMCM09
    |    `--Abrograptidae [Abrograptinae]MCM09
    |         |--Metabrobraptus Strachan 1990R93
    |         |--Abrograptus Mu 1958 [incl. Parabrograptus Mu & Qiao 1962]B70
    |         |    `--*A. formosus Mu 1958B70
    |         |--Dinemagraptus Kozłowski 1951M14
    |         |    `--*D. warkae Kozłowski 1952B70
    |         `--Jiangshanites Mu & Qiao 1962B70
    |              |--*J. ramosus Mu & Qiao 1962B70
    |              `--J. dubiusMCM09
    `--Pan-Reclinata [Dichograptidae, Dichograptina]MCM09
         |  i. s.: Ctenograptus Nicholson 1876 (n. d.)M14
         |         Hermannograptus Monsen 1937M14
         |         Kellamograptus Rickards & Chapman 1991M14
         |         Kstaugraptus Tzaj 1973M14
         |         Orthodichograptus Thomas 1972M14
         |         Triaenograptus Hall 1914M14 [incl. Tridensigraptus Zhao 1964B70]
         |           |--*T. neglectus Hall 1914B70
         |           `--*Tridensigraptus’ zhejiangensis Zhao 1964B70
         |--Clonograptus Hall ex Nicholson 1873MCM09, B70 [=Clonograpsus Nicholson 1873M14; incl. Herrmannograptus Monsen 1937B70]
         |    |--*C. rigidus (Hall 1858) [=Graptolithus rigidus, Clonograpsus rigidus]B70
         |    |--C. flexilisMCM09
         |    |--C. magnificusFC86
         |    |--‘Graptolithus’ milesi Hall 1861 [=*Herrmannograptus milesi]B70
         |    |--C. multiplexM14
         |    |--C. persistensFC86
         |    `--C. tenellus [incl. C. tenellus var. callavai]CT83
         `--+--DichograptinaeMCM09
            `--+--PterograptidaeMCM09
               `--+--ReclinataMCM09
                  `--Didymograptidae [Didymograptinae]M14
                       |--DidymograptusB70
                       |--Jenkinsograptus Gutiérrez-Marco 1986M14
                       |--Janograptus Tullberg 1880M14
                       |    `--*J. laxatus Tullberg 1880B70
                       |--Parazygograptus Kozłowski 1954M14
                       |    `--*P. erraticus Kozłowski 1954B70
                       |--Trigonograptus Nicholson 1869B70, M14 [=TrigonograpsusM14]
                       |    `--*T. lanceolatus Nicholson 1869B70
                       |--Aulograptus Skevington 1965MCM09, B70
                       |    |--*A. cucullus (Bulman 1932) [=Didymograptus cucullus]B70
                       |    `--A. climacograptoides [=Didymograptus climacograptoides]B70
                       |--Baltograptus Maletz 1994M14
                       |    |--B. kunmingensisM14
                       |    |--B. minutusCM04
                       |    `--B. vacillansM14
                       |--Cymatograptus Jaanusson 1965M14
                       |    |--*C. undulatus (Törnquist 1901) [=Didymograptus undulatus]B70
                       |    |--C. bidextroM14
                       |    `--C. validus [=Azygograptus validus]M14
                       `--Expansograptus Bouček & Přibyl 1951M14
                            |--*E. extensus (Hall 1858) [=Graptolithus extensus, Didymograptus extensus]B70
                            |--E. grandisM14
                            |--E. latusM14
                            |--E. nitidusM10
                            `--E. similisMCM08

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B70] Bulman, O. M. B. 1970. Graptolithina with sections on Enteropneusta and Pterobranchia. In: Teichert, C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt V 2nd ed. pp. V1–V149. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and the University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[CT83] Chen J.-Y. & C. Teichert. 1983. Cambrian Cephalopoda of China. Palaeontographica Abteilung A: Paläozoologie—Stratigraphie 181 (1–3): 1–102.

[CM04] Cooper, R. A., J. Maletz, L. Taylor & J. A. Zalasiewicz. 2004. Graptolites: patterns of diversity across paleolatitudes. In: Webby, B. D., F. Paris, M. L. Droser & I. G. Percival (eds) The Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event pp. 281–293. Columbia University Press.

[FC86] Fortey, R. A., & R. A. Cooper. 1986. A phylogenetic classification of the graptoloids. Palaeontology 29: 631–654.

[M10] Maletz, J. 2010. Xiphograptus and the evolution of virgella-bearing graptoloids. Palaeontology 53 (2): 415–439.

[M14] Maletz, J. 2014. The classification of the Pterobranchia (Cephalodiscida and Graptolithina). Bulletin of Geosciences 89 (3): 477–540.

[MCM09] Maletz, J., J. Carlucci & C. E. Mitchell. 2009. Graptoloid cladistics, taxonomy and phylogeny. Bulletin of Geosciences 84 (1): 7–19.

[R93] Rickards, R. B. 1993. Graptolithina. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 537–542. Chapman & Hall: London.

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