Pachodynerus nasidens, copyright rjspeer.

Belongs within: Vespidae.
Contains: Delta, Paralastor, Acarodynerus, Antamenes, Stenodyneriellus, Pseudalastor, Australodynerus, Rhynchium, Discoelius, Eumenes, Pseudepipona, Symmorphus, Odynerus, Ancistrocerus, Stenodynerus, Euodynerus, Montezumia.

The Eumeninae, potter and mason wasps, are a group of vespid wasps including both solitary and presocial species (Hines et al. 2007). Members of the group are distinguished from other vespids by the presence of parategulae and bifid claws. The name ‘potter wasp’ refers to the pot-shaped nests built by species of Eumenes and related genera; members of this clade (the first branching in the tree below) also have the first segment of the metasoma modified into an elongate petiole (Carpenter & Cumming 1985).

The remaining mason wasps, in which the first metasomal segment is generally shorter and/or broader, generally construct nests in cavities such as burrows in the ground or narrow hollows in wood. Other features uniting many members of this latter group include five-toothed mandibles, cephalic foveae in the females, and a basomedian sulcus on the second metasomal sternite (Carpenter & Cumming 1985). Members of a potential clade including Symmorphus, Odynerus and related genera have cephalic foveae wellseparated and situated close to midway between the posterior ocelli and occipital margin (Carpenter & Cumming 1985).

<==Eumeninae [Discoeliinae, Raphiglossinae]
    |--+--Alphamenes campanulatusHH07
    |  |--EumenesHH07
    |  |--Minixi mexicanumCC85
    |  `--OmicronCC85
    |       |--O. argentina [=Eumenes (Omicron) argentina]B06
    |       |--O. bonariensis (Brèthes 1905) [=Eumenes (Omicron) bonariensis]B05
    |       |--O. globicollis [=Eumenes (Omicron) globicollis]B05
    |       `--O. spegazzinii (Brèthes 1905) [=Eumenes (Omicrom) spegazzinii]B05
       |  `--+--Pterochilus phaleratusCC85, G20 [=Eumenes (Pterochilus) phaleratusG20]
       |     |--OdynerusCC85
       |     |--TropidodynerusCC85
       |     |--GymnomerusCC85
       |     `--ParavespaCC85
       |          |  i. s.: P. spinigeraGS61a
       |          `--P. (Gestrodynerus Giordani Soika 1961)GS61a
       |               |--P. (*G.) gestroi [=Odynerus gestroi]GS61a
       |               |--P. (G.) minutepunctata Giordani Soika 1961GS61a
       |               `--P. (G.) violaceipennis Giordani Soika 1961GS61a
          |  `--+--GastrodynerusCC85
          |     |--+--SmeringodynerusCC85
          |     |  `--CephalodynerusCC85
          |     |       |--C. deformicepsCC85
          |     |       |--C. platycerusCC85
          |     |       `--C. russipesCC85
          |     |--+--DolichodynerusCC85
          |     |  |    |--D. turgicepsCC85
          |     |  |    `--D. vandykeiCC85
          |     |  `--+--LeptochiloidesCC85
          |     |     `--+--Hypalastoroides mexicanusCC85
          |     |        `--+--Maricopodynerus maricoporumCC85
          |     |           `--Microdynerus lissomomusCC85
          |     `--+--LeucodynerusCC85
          |        `--+--StenodynerusHH07
          |           |--Paraleptomenes miniatusCC85
          |           `--PseudonortoniaCC85
          |                |--*P. difformis [=Odynerus difformis]GS61b
          |                |--P. androclesGS61b
          |                |--P. bisuturalis [=Nortonia bisuturalis]OK99
          |                `--P. luzonensisGS61b
             |  `--Pachodynerus Brèthes 1906HH07, B06
             |       |--P. alayoiBD17
             |       |--P. argentinus (see below for synonymy)B06
             |       |--P. brevithorax [=Odynerus brevithorax]B06
             |       |--P. erynnisHH07
             |       |--P. nasidens [=Odynerus nasidens]B06
             |       |--P. nigriculus [=Odynerus nigriculus]B06
             |       |--P. praecox [=Odynerus praecox]B06
             |       |--P. simplicicornis [=Odynerus simplicicornis]B06
             |       `--P. validus Brèthes 1906B06
             `--+--Pseudodynerus quadrisectusHH07
                           |--M. angulosaB06
                           |    |--M. a. angulosaB06
                           |    `--M. a. cingulataB06
                           |--M. anisitsii Brèthes 1906B06
                           |--M. apicalipennisB06
                           |--M. caridei Brèthes 1906B06
                           |--M. maxillarisB06
                           `--M. quadridensOK99
Eumeninae incertae sedis:
  Abispa Mitchell 1838 (Abispa) [incl. Monerebia Saussure 1852]C85
    |--*A. (A.) australiana (Mitchell 1838) [=Vespa (*A.) australiana]C85
    |--A. (A.) ephippium (Fabricius 1775) [=Vespa ephippium; incl. A. meadewaldoensis Perkins 1914]C85
    |--A. (A.) laticincta van der Vecht 1960C85
    `--A. (A.) splendida (Guérin-Méneville 1838) [=Odynerus splendidus, *Monerebia splendida]C85
         |--A. s. splendidaC85
         `--A. s. australis Smith 1857C85
  Subancistrocerus Saussure 1855C85
    |--*S. sichelii (Saussure 1855) [=Odynerus sichelii]C85
    |--S. clavicornisGS61b
    |--S. kankauensisGS61b
    |--S. monstricornis (Giordani Soika 1941) [=Ancistrocerus (Subancistrocerus) monstricornis]C85
    |--S. palauensis [=Pseudonortonia palauensis]GS61b
    |--S. thalassorctosGS61b
    `--S. yapensis [=Pseudonortonia yapensis]GS61b
  Parifodynerus Giordani Soika 1962C85
    |--*P. parificus Giordani Soika 1962C85
    `--P. alariformis (Saussure 1856) (see below for synonymy)C85
  Leptomenoides Giordani Soika 1962C85
    |--*L. placidior Giordani Soika 1962C85
    |--L. cairnensis Giordani Soika 1962C85
    |--L. extraneus (Saussure 1855) (see below for synonymy)C85
    |--L. histrio Giordani Soika 1962C85
    |--L. mackayensis Giordani Soika 1962C85
    |--L. pachymeniformis Giordani Soika 1962C85
    `--L. pronotalis Giordani Soika 1962C85
  Diemodynerus Giordani Soika 1962C85
    |--*D. diemensis (Saussure 1853) [=Odynerus (Leionotus) diemensis]GS61b
    |--D. decipiens (Saussure 1867) [=Odynerus (Leionotus) decipiens, O. (Rhynchium) decipiens]C85
    |    |--D. d. decipiensC85
    |    `--D. d. positus Giordani Soika 1977C85
    |--D. pseudacarodynerus Giordani Soika 1962C85
    `--D. saucius (Saussure 1856) [=Odynerus saucius]C85
  Flammodynerus Giordani Soika 1962C85
    |--*F. subalaris (Saussure 1855) [=Odynerus subalaris]GS61b
    |--F. flammiger (Saussure 1856) [=Odynerus flammiger]C85
    |    |--F. f. flammigerC85
    |    `--F. f. nigroflammeus Giordani Soika 1962C85
    `--F. pseudoloris Giordani Soika 1962C85
  Acarozumia Bequaert 1921C85
    `--*A. amaliae (Saussure 1869) (see below for synonymy)C85
  Alastoroides Saussure 1856 (nom. cons.) [=Paralastoroides Saussure 1856 (nom. inv.)]C85
    `--*A. clotho (Lepeletier 1841) [=Alastor clotho, *Paralastoroides clotho]C85
  Allorhynchium van der Vecht 1963C85
    |--*A. argentatum (Fabricius 1804) [=Vespa argentata]C85
    `--A. iridipenne (Smith 1861) [=Rhynchium iridipenne]C85
  Bidentodynerus Giordani Soika 1977C85
    `--*B. bicolor (Saussure 1855) [=Odynerus bicolor, O. (Rhynchium) bicolor, Pseudepipona bicolor]C85
         |--B. b. bicolorC85
         |--B. b. aurantiopicta (Giordani Soika 1941)C85 (see below for synonymy)
         |--B. b. flavescentulus (Giordani Soika 1941)C85 (see below for synonymy)
         `--B. b. nigrocinctoides (Giordani Soika 1941)C85 (see below for synonymy)
  Ectopioglossa Perkins 1912C85
    `--E. polita (Smith 1861)C85
         |--E. p. politaC85
         `--E. p. australensis (Meade-Waldo 1910) (see below for synonymy)C85
  Epiodynerus Giordani Soika 1958C85
    |--*E. alecto (Lepeletier 1841) [=Odynerus alecto, Pseudepipona (*Epiodynerus) alecto]C85
    |--E. decoratus (Saussure 1855) [=Rhynchium decoratum, Pseudepipona (Epiodynerus) decorata]C85
    |--E. nigrocinctus (Saussure 1853) (see below for synonymy)C85
    |--E. tamarinus (Saussure 1853) [=Odynerus (Leionotus) tamarinus, Pseudepipona (Epiodynerus) tamarina]C85
    |    |--E. t. tamarinusC85
    |    `--E. t. inviolatus Giordani Soika 1977C85
    `--E. tasmaniensis (Saussure 1853)C85 (see below for synonymy)
  Eudiscoelius Friese 1904 [incl. Euchalcomenes Turner 1908]C85
    |--*E. metallicus Friese 1904C85
    `--E. gilberti (Turner 1908) [=*Euchalcomenes gilberti, Nortonia gilberti, Pachymenes gilberti]C85
  Katamenes Meade-Waldo 1910C85
    `--K. fluctuans (Saussure 1852) [=Eumenes fluctuans]C85
  Macrocalymma Perkins 1908C85
    |--*M. smithianum Perkins 1908C85
    `--M. aliciae Meade-Waldo 1914C85
  Orancistrocerus van der Vecht 1963C85
    `--O. drewseni (Saussure 1857) [=Odynerus drewseni]C85
  Pachycoelius Giordani Soika 1969C85
    |--*P. brevicornis Giordani Soika 1969C85
    |--P. carinatus (Meade-Waldo 1910) [=Discoelius carinatus]C85
    `--P. mediocris Giordani Soika 1969C85
  Ancistroceroides Saussure 1855C85
  Parodynerus Saussure 1855C85
    `--P. bicincta (Fabricius 1781) (see below for synonymy)C85
  Pseudabispa van der Vecht 1960C85
    |--*P. abispoides (Perkins 1912) (see below for synonymy)C85
    |--P. confusa van der Vecht 1960C85
    |--P. ephippioides van der Vecht 1960C85
    `--P. paragioides (Meade-Waldo 1910) [=Abispa paragioides]C85
  Pseudozethus Perkins 1914C85
    |--*P. australensis Perkins 1914C85
    |--P. confusus Giordani Soika 1969C85
    |--P. elongatusGS61b
    |--P. ephippium (Saussure 1855) [=Discoelius ephippium]C85
    |--P. insignis (Saussure 1856) [=Discoelius insignis, Macrocalymma insignis]C85
    |--P. pseudospinosus Giordani Soika 1969 [=Deuterodiscoelius pseudospinosus]C85
    |--P. spinosus (Saussure 1855) [=Discoelius spinosus]C85
    `--P. verreauxii (Saussure 1852) [=Discoelius verreauxii, Deuterodiscoelius verreauxii]C85
  Syneuodynerus Blüthgen 1951C85
    |--*S. egregius (Herrich-Schaeffer 1839) [=Odynerus egregius, Euodynerus (*Syneuodynerus) egregius]C85
    |--S. aurantiopilosellus (Giordani Soika 1962)C85 (see below for synonymy)
    |--S. longebispinosus (Giordani Soika 1962) [=Pseudepipona (Syneuodynerus) longebispinosa]C85
    `--S. occidentatus (Giordani Soika 1962) [=Pseudepipona (Syneuodynerus) occidentata]C85
  Nortozumia amaliaeGS77
    |--A. angulicollisB06
    |--A. anomalusB06
    |--A. argentinusB06
    |--A. clypeatus Brèthes 1906B06
    |--A. elongatusB06
    |--A. nitidus Brèthes 1906B06
    |--A. persimilisB06
    |--‘Nysson’ rottensis Meunier 1915BM76
    `--A. schrottkyiB06
  Paramischocyttarus buyssoniCC85
  Synagris Latreille 1802CC85, L02
    |--*S. (Synagris) cornuta (Linnaeus 1758)L02, BM76 [=Vespa cornutaBM76]
    |--S. (Paragris) abyssinica Guérin in Lefebvre 1848GS61a
    `--S. sichelianaR13
  Plagiolabra Schulthess-Rechberg 1903CC85, B06 [incl. Leontiniella Brèthes 1903B05]
    |--P. andina Brèthes 1906B06
    `--P. nigra [incl. Leontiniella argentina]B06
  Raphiglossa zethoidesCC85, R13
    |--A. delphinalis [=Lionotus delphinalis]OK99
    |--A. mandschuricusS94
    `--A. rossiOK99
    |--A. flavomarginatumS94
    |    |--A. f. flavomarginatumS94
    |    `--A. f. micadoS94
    |--A. histrionicumOK99
    `--A. melanopterumS94
    |--P. algeriensisCC85
    `--P. zeppeliniCC85
    |--P. depressus (Saussure 1856)CC85, L41 (see below for synonymy)
    |--P. imperatrix (Smith 1857) [=Eumenes imperatrix, Pareumenes (Pseumenes) imperatrix]L41
    `--P. quadrispinosus (Saussure 1856) [=Eumenes (Pareumenes) quadrispinosus, Pareumenes quadrispinosa]L41
  Tricarinodynerus gueriniiCC85, GS61a
    |--T. g. gueriniiGS61a
    |--T. g. deserticola Giordani Soika 1961GS61a
    |--T. g. neptunusGS61a
    `--T. g. rubensGS61a
  Labus De Saussure 1867B06
    |--L. floricolaB06
    |--L. humbertianusB06
    `--L. spinigerB06
  Oreumenes decoratusS94
    |--P. ishigakienseS94
    `--P. tsunekii Tano & Yamane 1983I92
  Proepipona falcatumOK99
    |--P. acutus Liu 1941L41
    |--P. chinensis Liu 1941L41
    |--P. conjunctus Liu 1941L41
    |--P. interruptus Liu 1941L41
    |--P. obtusus Liu 1941L41
    |--P. paeneplanus [=Eumenes paeneplanus]L41
    `--P. transitorus Liu 1941L41
  Acarepipona pervigilansOK99
  Gribodia confluentaOK99
    |--P. bacuBD17
    |--P. histrio [=Stenodynerus (Parancistrocerus) histrio]K62
    |--P. pedestrisOK99
    |--P. vagusOK99
    `--P. vogti (Krombein 1962) [=Stenodynerus (Parancistrocerus) vogti]K62
  ‘Didineis’ solidescens Scudder 1890E66

*Acarozumia amaliae (Saussure 1869) [=Nortonia amaliae, Montezumia (*Acarozumia) amaliae; incl. M. australensis Perkins 1908]C85

Bidentodynerus bicolor aurantiopicta (Giordani Soika 1941)C85 [=Odynerus (Rhynchium) bicolor aurantiopictusC85, Pseudepipona bicolor aurantiopictaGS61b]

Bidentodynerus bicolor flavescentulus (Giordani Soika 1941)C85 [=Odynerus (Rhynchium) bicolor flavescentulusC85, Pseudepipona bicolor flavescentulaGS61b]

Bidentodynerus bicolor nigrocinctoides (Giordani Soika 1941)C85 [=Odynerus (Rhynchium) bicolor nigrocinctoidesC85, Pseudepipona bicolor nigrocinctoidesGS61b]

Ectopioglossa polita australensis (Meade-Waldo 1910) [=Eumenes (Pareumenes) australensis; incl. *Ec. australensis Perkins 1912 non Eumenes australensis Meade-Waldo 1910]C85

Epiodynerus nigrocinctus (Saussure 1853) [=Odynerus (Leionotus) nigrocinctus, Pseudepipona (Epiodynerus) nigrocinctus]C85

Epiodynerus tasmaniensis (Saussure 1853)C85 [=Odynerus (Leionotus) tasmaniensisC85, Pseudepipona (Epiodynerus) tasmaniensisGS61b; incl. Rhynchium abispoides Meade-Waldo 1910C85, Odynerus (Rhynchium) abispoidesGS61b]

Leptomenoides extraneus (Saussure 1855) [=Odynerus (Leionotus) extraneus, Pachymenes extraneus; incl. O. (L.) exilis Saussure 1853 non O. exilis Schaeffer 1841]C85

Pachodynerus argentinus [=Odynerus argentinus; incl. O. argentinus var. andinus, Pachodynerus argentinus var. andinus]B06

Parifodynerus alariformis (Saussure 1856) [=Odynerus alariformis; incl. O. (Stenodyneroides) subalaris Giordani Soika 1941 non Saussure 1855]C85

Parodynerus bicincta (Fabricius 1781) [=Vespa bicincta; incl. Odynerus bizonatus Boisduval 1835, *Parodynerus bizonatus]C85

*Pseudabispa abispoides (Perkins 1912) [=Odynerus abispoides non Rhynchium abispoides Meade-Waldo 1910 (not preoc. if in dif. gen.)]C85

Pseumenes depressus (Saussure 1856)CC85, L41 [=Eumenes (Pareumenes) depressusL41, Pareumenes quadrispinosa var. depressaL41]

Syneuodynerus aurantiopilosellus (Giordani Soika 1962)C85 [=Pseudepipona (Syneuodynerus) aurantiopilosellaC85, P. aurantiobispinosaGS61b]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[BD17] Branstetter, M. G., B. N. Danforth, J. P. Pitts, B. C. Faircloth, P. S. Ward, M. L. Buffington, M. W. Gates, R. R. Kula & S. G. Brady. 2017. Phylogenomic insights into the evolution of stinging wasps and the origins of ants and bees. Current Biology 27: 1019–1025.

[B05] Brèthes, J. 1905. Nuevos euménidos argentinos. Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires, serie 3, 6: 21–39.

[B06] Brèthes, J. 1906. Véspidos y eumenídidos sudamericanos (nuevo suplemento). Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires, serie 3, 6: 310–377.

[C85] Cardale, J. C. 1985. Vespoidea and Sphecoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 150–303. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[CC85] Carpenter, J. M., & J. M. Cumming. 1985. A character analysis of the North American potter wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae; Eumeninae). Journal of Natural History 19 (5): 877–916.

[E66] Evans, H. E. 1966. The Comparative Ethology and Evolution of the Sand Wasps. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[GS61a] Giordani Soika, A. 1961a. Hymenoptera (Aculeata): Vespidae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck. South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 440–451. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[GS61b] Giordani Soika, A. 1961b. Gli Odynerus sensu antiquo del continente Australiano e della Tasmania. Boll. Mus. Civ. Venezia 14: 57–202.

[GS77] Giordani Soika, A. 1977. Contributo alla conoscenza degli eumenidi australiani. Memorie della Società Entomologica Italiana 55: 109–138.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[HH07] Hines, H. M., J. H. Hunt, T. K. O’Connor, J. J. Gillespie & S. A. Cameron. 2007. Multigene phylogeny reveals eusociality evolved twice in vespid wasps. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 104 (9): 3295–3299.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[K62] Krombein, K. V. 1962. Natural history of Plummers Island, Maryland. XIII. Descriptions of new wasps from Plummers Island, Maryland, (Hymenoptera: Aculeata). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 1–18.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L41] Liu, C. L. 1941. Revisional studies of the Vespidae of China I: the genus Pareumenes Saussure, with descriptions of six new species (Hymenoptera: Eumeninae). Notes d’Entomologie Chinoise 8 (6): 245–289.

[OK99] OConnor, B. M., & J. S. H. Klompen. 1999. Phylogenetic perspectives on mite-insect associations: the evolution of acarinaria. In: Needham, G. R., R. Mitchell, D. J. Horn & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 2. Symposia pp. 63–71. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[S94] Shimizu, A. 1994. Phylogeny and classification of the family Pompilidae (Hymenoptera). Tokyo Metropolitan University Bulletin of Natural History 2: 1–142.

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