Euphonia

Male chestnut-bellied euphonia Euphonia pectoralis, copyright Dario Sanches.

Belongs within: Fringillidae.

Euphonia is a Neotropical genus of frugivorous birds. They are small and dumpy, with a short tail and stubby bill. Males are commonly patterned in dark and yellow whereas females are olive-green (Austin 1961).

<==Euphonia Desmarest 1806 [incl. Tanagra Linnaeus 1764 (nom. rej.); Tanagrinae]B94
    |--+--E. pectoralis (Latham 1801)BKB15, H11 [=Pipra pectoralisH11]
    |  `--+--E. affinis (Lesson 1842)JT12, H11 [=Tanagra (Euphonia) affinisH11]
    |     |    |--E. a. affinisH11
    |     |    |--E. a. godmani Brewster 1889H11
    |     |    `--E. a. olmecorum Dickerman 1981H11
    |     `--+--E. chlorotica (Linnaeus 1766)JT12, H11 [=Tanagra chloroticaH11]
    |        |    |--E. c. chloroticaH11
    |        |    |--E. c. amazonica Parkes 1969H11
    |        |    |--E. c. cynophora (Oberholser 1918)H11
    |        |    |--E. c. serrirostris d’Orbigny & Lafresnaye 1837H11
    |        |    `--E. c. taczanowskii Sclater 1886H11
    |        `--E. finschi Sclater & Salvin 1877JT12, H11
    `--+--+--E. minuta Cabanis 1848ZP-J12, H11 [=Tanagra minutaS18]
       |  |    |--E. m. minutaS18
       |  |    `--E. m. humilis (Cabanis 1861)H11 [=Tanagra minuta humilisS18]
       |  `--+--E. laniirostris d’Orbigny & Lafresnaye 1837ZP-J12, H11 [=Tanagra laniirostrisE52]
       |     |    |--E. l. laniirostrisH11
       |     |    |--E. l. crassirostris Sclater 1857H11 [=Tanagra laniirostris crassirostrisE52]
       |     |    |--E. l. hypoxantha Berlepsch & Taczanowski 1884H11
       |     |    |--E. l. melanura Sclater 1851H11
       |     |    `--E. l. zopholega (Oberholser 1918)H11
       |     `--E. violacea (Linnaeus 1758)ZP-J12, H11 [=Fringilla violaceaH11]
       |          |--E. v. violaceaH11
       |          |--E. v. aurantiicollis Bertoni 1901H11
       |          `--E. v. rodwayi (Penard 1919)H11
       `--+--E. xanthogaster Sundevall 1834ZP-J12, H11 [=Euphone xanthogasterH11]
          |    |--E. x. xanthogasterH11
          |    |--E. x. badissima Olson 1981H11
          |    |--E. x. brevirostris Bonaparte 1851H11
          |    |--E. x. brunneifrons Chapman 1901H11
          |    |--E. x. chocoensis Hellmayr 1911H11
          |    |--E. x. cyanonota Parkes 1969H11
          |    |--E. x. dilutior (Zimmer 1943)H11
          |    |--E. x. exsul Berlepsch 1912H11
          |    |--E. x. oressinoma Olson 1981H11
          |    |--E. x. quitensis (Nelson 1912)H11
          |    `--E. x. ruficeps d’Orbigny & Lafresnaye 1837H11
          `--+--E. cayennensis (Gmelin 1789)ZP-J12, H11 [=Tanagra cayennensisH11]
             `--E. rufiventris (Vieillot 1819)ZP-J12, H11 [=Tanagra rufiventrisH11]
                  |--E. r. rufiventrisH11
                  `--E. r. carnegiei Dickerman 1988H11
Euphonia incertae sedis:
  E. anneae Cassin 1865H11
    |--E. a. anneaeH11
    `--E. a. rufivertex Salvin 1866H11
  E. chalybea (Mikan 1825) [=Tanagra chalybea]H11
  E. chrysopasta Sclater & Salvin 1869H11
    |--E. c. chrysopastaH11
    `--E. c. nitida (Penard 1923)H11
  ‘Tanagra’ coelestisSS66
  E. concinna Sclater 1855H11
  E. cyanocephala (Vieillot 1819)BKB15, H11 [=Pipra cyanocephalaH11; incl. E. aureataH11]
    |--E. c. cyanocephala [incl. E. cyanocephala intermedia]H11
    |--E. c. insignis Sclater & Salvin 1877H11
    `--E. c. pelzelni Sclater 1886H11
  ‘Tanagra’ darwini [incl. T. frugilegus]Sc66
  E. elegantissima (Bonaparte 1838) [=Pipra elegantissima]H11
    |--E. e. elegantissimaH11
    |--E. e. rileyi (van Rossem 1942)H11
    `--E. e. vincens Hartert 1913H11
  E. fulvicrissa Sclater 1857BKB15, H11 [=Tanagra fulvicrissaS18]
    |--E. f. fulvicrissaH11
    |--E. f. omissa Hartert 1913H11
    `--E. f. purpurascens Hartert 1901H11
  E. gouldi Sclater 1857JT12, H11
    |--E. g. gouldi [incl. E. gouldi loetscheri]H11
    `--E. g. praetermissa (Peters 1929)H11
  E. gracilisSa66
  E. hirundinacea Bonaparte 1838BKB15, H11
    |--E. h. hirundinacea [incl. E. h. caribbaea, E. h. russelli, E. h. suttoni]H11
    `--E. h. gnatho (Cabanis 1861)H11
  E. imitans (Hellmayr 1936) [=Tanagra imitans]H11
  E. jamaica (Linnaeus 1766) [=Fringilla jamaica]H11
  E. luteicapilla (Cabanis 1861)H11 [=Phonasca luteicapillaH11, Tanagra luteicapillaA61]
  ‘Tanagra’ melanopteraSS66
  E. mesochrysa Salvadori 1873H11
    |--E. m. mesochrysaH11
    |--E. m. media (Zimmer 1943)H11
    `--E. m. tavarae (Chapman 1925)H11
  E. plumbea du Bus de Gisignies 1855H11
  ‘Tanagra’ rubraJ23
  E. saturata (Cabanis 1861) [=Phonasca saturata]H11
  ‘Tanagra’ striataSc66
  E. trinitatis Strickland 1851H11
Hybrid: Euphonia vittata [E. pectoralis × E. xanthogaster]H11

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[E52] Eisenmann, E. 1952. Annotated list of birds of Barro Colorado Island, Panama Canal Zone. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 117 (5): 1–62.

[H11] Hilty, S. L. 2011. Family Thraupidae (tanagers). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 46–329. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[J23] James, E. 1823. Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, performed in the years 1819 and ’20, by order of the Hon. J. C. Calhoun, sec’y of war: under the command of Major Stephen H. Long. From the notes of Major Long, Mr. T. Say, and other gentlemen of the exploring party vol. 1. H. C. Carey & I. Lea: Philadelphia.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[Sa66] Salvin, O. 1866. Descriptions of eight new species of birds from Veragua. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 67–76.

[Sc66] Sclater, P. L. 1866. On the birds in the vicinity of Lima, Peru. With notes on their habits, by Prof. W. Nation, of Lima, C. M. Z. S. (Part I.) Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 96–100.

[SS66] Sclater, P. L., & O. Salvin. 1866. Catalogue of birds collected by Mr. E. Bartlett on the River Uyacali, Eastern Peru, with notes and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 175–201.

[S18] Stone, W. 1918. Birds of the Panama Canal Zone, with special reference to a collection made by Mr. Lindsey L. Jewel. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 239–280.

[ZP-J12] Zuccon, D., R. Prŷs-Jones, P. C. Rasmussen & P. G. P. Ericson. 2012. The phylogenetic relationships and generic limits of finches (Fringillidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 62: 581–596.

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