Euphorbiaceae

 Manioc Manihot esculenta, copyright Arthur Chapman.

Belongs within: Malpighiales.
Contains: Glochidion, Macaranga, Sauropus, Bertya, SapiumMallotus, Croton, Plukenetieae, Acalypha, Euphorbia.

The Euphorbiaceae are a diverse group of flowering plants, including trees, shrubs and herbs. Stipules are typically present though they may be modified into spines or glands, and may be deciduous. Many members of the family are succulent and some can bear a strong superficial resemblance to cacti. Members of the subfamily Euphorbioideae produce whitish latex and have reduced staminal flowers. Crotonoideae produce latex that is often reddish or yellowish and flowers have developed sepals and petals.

Notable members include Manihot, a genus of Neotropical herbs, shrubs and trees with white latex and often deeply palmate leaves, of which manioc or cassava M. esculenta is widely grown as a food plant. The castor oil plant Ricinus communis is a large herb or shrub with palmately lobed leaves that is originally native to a range between eastern Africa and India but which has becomed naturalised in most tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Hevea is a Neotropical genus of trees with trifoliolate leaves, of which the Pará rubber tree H. brasiliensis is the most commercially significant source of latex for rubber. The physic nut Jatropha curcas is grown for the oil from its seeds which has been investigated as a potential source of biofuel. The candlenut Aleurites moluccana is also grown for its oily nuts which may be eaten or burned to provide light. The blindness trees of the genus Excoecaria are widespread in the Old World tropics, including the coastal mangrove species E. agallocha. Neoscortechinia is a genus of at least partially pilose (at least on young growth) trees found in the Malesian region that produce yellow, fragrant flowers.

Characters (from Flora of China): Trees, shrubs, or herbs, rarely woody or herbaceous lianas, monoecious or dioecious, indumentum of simple, branched, stellate, or gland-tipped hairs, peltate or glandular scales or stinging hairs, latex often present, clear, white, or colored; roots woody, rarely roots tuberous and stems succulent, sometimes spiny. Leaves alternate or opposite, rarely whorled; stipules usually present, often free, sometimes modified into spines or glands, deciduous or persistent; petioles long to short, sometimes with glands at apex or base; leaf blade simple, sometimes palmately lobed, rarely compound, or reduced to scales, margins entire or toothed, sometimes with distinct glands along margin and/or on surface, venation pinnate or palmate. Inflorescences axillary or terminal, flowers in cymes or fascicles, these often arranged along an elongated axis, branched or unbranched, forming a thyrse, in congested heads, or in a flowerlike cyathium with very reduced flowers enclosed within a ± cupular involucre; bracts sometimes petaloid. Flowers unisexual, within same inflorescence or in separate inflorescences, actinomorphic. Sepals (1-)3-6(-8), free or connate into calyx tube, valvate or imbricate, rarely absent. Petals free, often reduced or absent. Disk present or absent. Male flowers with disk intrastaminal or extrastaminal, entire to dissected. Stamens one to very many, hypogynous; filaments free or connate; anthers 2(-4)-locular, mostly dehiscing longitudinally, rarely transversely or by pores, introrse or extrorse; rudimentary ovary sometimes present. Female flowers rarely with staminodes; ovary superior, (1-)2-5(-20)-locular; placentation axile; ovules 1 or 2 per locule, anatropous or hemitropous; styles free or connate, entire or lobed, or multifid, lobes erect, horizontal or curved; stigma capitate, linear, fimbriate, fan-shaped or pinnatilobate. Fruit typically a capsule elastically dehiscent into 2-valved cocci from a persistent columella, sometimes a berry or drupe. Seeds 1 or 2 per locule; seed coat thin to indurate, sometimes fleshy to form a sarcotesta; caruncle sometimes present; aril sometimes present; endosperm present or absent; embryo straight to curved or folded; cotyledons usually broader than radical. x = 6-14.

<==Euphorbiaceae [Acalyphoideae]
    |--NeoscortechiniaXR12
    |    |--N. angustifoliaH03
    |    |--N. philippinensisH03
    |    `--N. sumatrensisH03
    `--+--JatrophaXR12
       |    |--J. cuneataMF68
       |    |--J. curcasXR12
       |    |--J. gossypiifoliaLK14
       |    |--J. manihotFS90
       |    `--J. multifidaT-W89
       |--+--MicrandraDL07 [incl. CunuriaE03]
       |  |    `--M. siphonoidesDL07
       |  |--HeveaXR12
       |  |    |--H. brasiliensisXR12
       |  |    `--H. paucifloraDL07
       |  `--ManihotXR12
       |       |--M. aipiC55
       |       |--M. epruinosaRS98
       |       |--M. esculentaXR12
       |       |--M. flabellifoliaH90
       |       |--M. glazioviiRS98
       |       |--M. pseudoglazioviiMo99
       |       |--M. quinquepartitaGA97
       |       `--M. utilissima [=Mandioca utilissima]MM96
       |--+--Suregada Rottler 1803XR12, A-R03 [incl. Gelonium Willdenow 1806 non Gaertner 1791A-R03]
       |  |--CrotonoideaeGA97
       |  |    |  i. s.: Aleurites moluccanaGA97, C06 [incl. A. trilobaC06]
       |  |    |--CrotonXR12
       |  |    `--+--Codiaeum variegatumXR12, DL07
       |  |       |--Ostodes paniculataDL07
       |  |       `--TrigonostemonXR12
       |  `--+--Omphalea Linnaeus 1759XR12, GA97 [Omphaleae]
       |     |    |--*O. triandra Linnaeus 1759GA97
       |     |    `--O. diandra Linnaeus 1759 [incl. O. megacarpa Hemsley 1897]GA97
       |     `--+--TetrorchidiumXR12
       |        `--EndospermumXR12
       |             |--E. formicarumN91
       |             |--E. medullosumNC91
       |             `--E. moluccanumDL07
       `--+--+--MoultonianthusXR12
          |  `--+--ConceveibaXR12
          |     `--+--+--LasiocrotonXR12
          |        |  `--PlukenetieaeXR12
          |        `--+--RicinusXR12
          |           |    |--R. communisXR12
          |           |    `--R. zanzibarensisP09
          |           `--+--SpathiostemonXR12
          |              `--AcalyphaXR12
          `--+--Pimelodendron zoanthogyneXR12, DL07
             `--EuphorbioideaeGA97
                  |  i. s.: SenefelderaGA97
                  |         MabeaGA97
                  |           |--M. brasiliensisH11
                  |           |--M. salicoidesGA97
                  |           `--M. taquariL-M-HG08
                  |--EuphorbiaXR12
                  `--+--HuraXR12
                     |--Maprounea guianensisDL07
                     `--Homalanthus Juss. 1824XR12, A61 [=OmalanthusH90]
                          |--H. novo-guineensisLK14
                          |--H. polyandrus (Hooker) Cheeseman 1906 (see below for synonymy)A61
                          |--H. populifoliusC16 [=Carumbium populifoliumC16, Omalanthus populifoliusH90]
                          |--H. populneusDL07
                          `--‘Omalanthus’ stillingifoliusH90
Euphorbiaceae incertae sedis:
  MercurialisPT01
    |--M. annuaPT98
    `--M. perennisPT01
  AntidesmaE03
    |--A. buniusDD73
    |--A. diandrumP03
    |--A. ghaesembillaLK14
    |--A. montanumK03
    `--A. roxburghiiDD73
  GlochidionUB06
  DichostemmaH03
  KairothamnusE03
  Gymnanthes lucidaE03, J87
  StrophioblachiaE03
  Agrostistachys capitataE03, H03
  DoryxylonE03
  Shirakiopsis sancheziiE03, H03
  DistichiropsE03
  Homonoia ripariaM72
  Chaetocarpus Thwaites 1849 (nom. cons.) [Chaetocarpeae]KC01
  BaccaureaE03
    |--B. lanceolataK03
    |--B. puberulaK03
    `--B. sapidaDD73
  MacarangaE03
  SauropusE03
  AcidocrotonYY22
  ActinostemonE03
  AdenochlaenaYY22
  AdenoclineYY22
  AdenopeltisYY22
  AfrotrewiaYY22
  Agyneja impubesYY22, V98
  AlcoceriaYY22
  AlgernoniaYY22
  AlphandiaE03
  AmanoaE03
  AnabaenellaYY22
  Andrachne cordifoliaDD73
  AngostylisYY22
  AnthostemaYY22
  AonikenaYY22
  ApodiscusYY22
  ArgithamniaYY22
  ArgomuelleraE03
  AristogeitoniaE03
  AvellantiaYY22
  BaliospermumE03
    |--B. calycinumDD73
    |--B. corymbiferumDD73
    `--B. montanumSR07
  BertyaYY22
  BlachiaE03
  BonaniaYY22
  BreyniaE03
    |--B. cernuaHM03
    |--B. nivosaB00
    |--B. oblongifoliaMM09
    |--B. patensDD73
    `--B. rhamnoidesM72
  CalpigyneYY22
  CephalocrotonE03
  CephalocrotonopsisYY22
  CephalomappaE03
  ChiropetalumYY22
  ChloradeniaYY22
  ChondrostylisE03
  ChrozophoraE03
    |--C. brocchianaAGF98
    |--C. plicataAGF98
    |--C. rottelariVB02
    |--C. senegalensisD17
    `--C. tinctoriaY98
  CladogynosE03
  ClavistylisYY22
  CluytiandraYY22
  CnesmoneE03
  ColliguayaYY22
  CorytheaYY22
  CrotonopsisYY22
  DalembertiaYY22
  DicoeliaE03
  DitaxisE03
    |--D. californicaH93
    |--D. clarianaH93
    |--D. lanceolataH93
    |--D. neomexicanaDL07
    `--D. serrataH93
  DysopsisE03
  EleutherostigmaYY22
  EpiprinusE03
  ErismanthusE03
  FragariopsisYY22
  GrimmeodendronYY22
  Hippomane [Hippomaneae]E03
    `--H. mancinellaRJ11
  HypocotonYY22
  JoannesiaYY22
  JulocrotonYY22
  KlaineanthusYY22
  LasiococcaE03
  LeidesiaYY22
  LongetiaYY22
  LortiaYY22
  MareyaE03
  MegistostigmaE03
  Micrococca mercurialisE03, SR07
  MonadeniumYY22
  NecepsiaE03
  NeopalisayaYY22
  NeopycnocomaYY22
  NeoroeperaYY22
  NepenthandraYY22
  OphthalmoblaptonYY22
  PachystromaYY22
  PachystylidiumE03
  Paracroton pendulusE03, SR07
    |--P. p. ssp. pendulusSR07
    `--P. p. ssp. zeylanicusSR07
  Pedilanthus tithymaloidesE03, K03
  PetalodiscusYY22
  PlatygyneYY22
  Poranthera Rudge 1811A61
    |--*P. ericifolia Rudge 1811R11
    |--P. alpina Cheesem. ex Hooker 1881A61
    |--P. coeruleaLK14
    |--P. corymbosaC08
    |--P. huegeliiGK00
    `--P. microphylla Brong. 1828A61
  PseudanthusH90
    |--P. divaricatissimusH90
    |--P. orientalisH90
    |--P. ovalifoliusH90
    |--P. pimeleoidesH90
    `--P. virgatusGK00
  Pterococcus Hasskarl 1842 (nom. cons.)FT93
  PycnocomaE03
  RameliaYY22
  RicinocarposLK14
    |--R. bowmaniiH90
    |--R. marginatusLK14
    |--R. pinifoliusL09
    |--R. rosmarinifoliusLK14
    |--R. speciosusH90
    `--R. trichophyllusLK14
  SagotiaE03
  SchizostigmaYY22
  Sebastiania chamaeleaM72
  SeideliaYY22
  SperanskiaYY22
  SphaerostylisYY22
  StenadeniumYY22
  StillingiaE03
    |--S. linearifoliaH93
    |--S. paucidentataH93
    `--S. spinulosaH93
  SumbaviaYY22
  SumbaviopsisE03
  SynadeniumYY22
  SyndyophyllumE03
  TannodiaE03
  TetraplandraYY22
  TragiellaE03
  TrisyngyneYY22
  WetriariaYY22
  WielandiaYY22
  AdenophaedraE03
  AdrianaB00
    |--A. glabrataH90
    |    |--A. g. var. glabrata [incl. A. glabrata var. heterophylla]H90
    |    `--A. g. var. subglabra [incl. A. glabrata var. acerifolia]H90
    |--A. klotzschiiG96
    |--A. quadripartitaB00
    |--A. tomentosaB00
    |    |--A. t. var. tomentosaB00
    |    `--A. t. var. hookeriB00 [incl. A. hookeri var. glabriusculaH90]
    `--A. urticoidesKM08
  Alchorneopsis portoricensisE03, SWK87
  AlcinaeanthusYY22
  Aparisthmium cordatumE03, L-M-HG08
  AporosellaYY22
  AstrocasiaE03
  AthroandraYY22
  BaccaureopsisYY22
  BlumeodendronE03
  BocquilloniaYY22
  BuraeaviaYY22
  CaelebogyneYY22
  CaryodendronE03
  ChascothecaYY22
  CheilosaE03
  ChlamydojatrophaYY22
  ClaroriviniaYY22
  CoccocerasYY22
  CocconerionYY22
  CoelediscusYY22
  CometiaYY22
  ConceveibastrumYY22
  CrotonogyneYY22
  CyathogyneYY22
  CyrtogononeYY22
  CyrtogyneYY22
  DeuteromallotusYY22
  DiscocarpusE03
  DiscoclaoxylonE03
  DiscocleidionYY22
  DiscoglypremnaE03
  Ditta myricoidesJ87, SWK87
  EverettiodendronYY22
  FontaineaE03
    |--F. australisH90
    `--F. orariaH90
  GivotiaYY22
  GrosseraYY22
  HamilcoaYY22
  HasskarliaYY22
  Hemicyclia serrataA78
  HolstiaYY22
  LepidoturusYY22
  LeptonemeaYY22
  LeucocrotonYY22
  MaesobotryaE03
  ManniophytonYY22
  MartretiaYY22
  MetteniaYY22
  MischodonYY22
  NeoboutoniaE03
  NeojatrophaYY22
  NeomanniophytonYY22
  NulbraediaYY22
  PaivaeusaYY22
  PausandraE03
  PlagiostylesYY22
  PlatystigmaYY22
  PodadeniaYY22
  PoggeophytonYY22
  PolydragmaYY22
  ProtomegabariaYY22
  PseudagrostistachysE03
  PseudocrotonYY22
  PseudolachnostylisE03
  RicheriaE03
  RicinodendronE03
  SaviaE03
  SecretaniaYY22
  SpondianthusE03
  StaphysoraYY22
  TetracarpidiumYY22
  ThecacorisE03
  Trewia nudifloraE03, HU08
  TrigonopleuraE03
  UapacaYY22
  VeconcitesYY22
  WetriaE03
  ActephilaE03
    |--A. excelsaDD73
    |--A. latifoliaH09
    `--A. lindleyiH90
  Alchornea [Alchornieae]E03
    |--A. costaricensisOB11
    |--A. glandulosaMP00
    |--A. ilicifolia [incl. Coelebogyne ilicifolia]H90
    |--A. latifoliaSWK87
    |--A. rugosaJG19
    `--A. tiliaefoliaDD73
  AmpereaGK00
    |--A. simulansGK00
    |--A. spartioidesB96
    |--A. volubilisGK00
    `--A. xiphocladaH90 [=Leptomeria xiphoclada Sieber ex Sprengel 1827HG84; incl. A. spartioidesH90]
  AngostylidiumYY22
  BaloghiaH90
    |--B. inophylla [incl. B. lucida]H90
    `--B. marmorataH90
  BeyeriaKM08
    |--B. brevifoliaG04b
    |--B. cinereaKM08
    |--B. cyanescensK90
    |--B. lasiocarpaH90
    |--B. leschenaultiG76
    |--B. opacaH90
    `--B. viscosaN91
  Caperonia palustrisRC02
  ClaoxylonH90
    |--C. australeH90
    |--C. hilliiLK14
    `--C. indicum [incl. C. caerulescens]JG19
  CleidionE03
  CleistanthusUB06
    |--C. collinusS02
    |--C. cunninghamiiH90
    `--C. sankunnianus Sivar. & Indu Balach. 1985UB06
  CordemoyaYY22
  Dimorphocalyx australiensisE03, LK14
  GarciaE03
  LautembergiaYY22
  LebidieropsisYY22
  MelanolepisE03
  ReverchoniaYY22
  SapiumE03
  SecurinegaBB07
    |--S. leucopyrusRaS02
    `--S. virosaBB07
  TanodiaYY22
  Astraea lobata [=Croton lobatum]C55
  MallotusE03
  TriadicaE03
  Microstachys chamaeleaE03, LK14
  Margaritaria dubium-traceyiE03, LK14
  PtychopyxisE03
  Balakata luzonicaE03
  LeptopusSK05
    |--L. australisSK05
    |--L. decaisneiMa99
    `--L. sanjappae Sumathi, Karthigeyan et al. 2005SK05
  AnnesijoaE03
  BorneodendronE03
  BotryophoraE03
  ChoricerasE03
  ClonostylisE03
  ElateriospermumE03
  LoerzingiaE03
  NeotrewiaE03
  OctospermumE03
  ReutalisE03
  RicheriellaE03
  TapoidesE03
  Vernicia fordii [=Aleurites fordii]H90
  Meineckia parvifoliaE03, SR07
  SpirostachysE03
    |--S. africanaRu-S02
    `--S. patagonicaO06
  CavacoaE03
  CrotonogynopsisE03
  MildbraediaE03
  NeoholstiaE03
  ParanecepsiaE03
  SclerocrotonE03
  CnidoscolusE03
    |--C. aconitifoliusM-FR98
    |--C. quercifoliusBV09
    `--C. vitifoliusC-SQ08
  ArgythamniaE03
  DendrothrixE03
  SandwithiaE03
  Senefelderopsis croizatiiGA97
  CelianellaE03
  GlycydendronE03
  JablonskiaE03
  ‘Diplomorpha’ Griffith 1854 non Meisner 1841FT93
  HyeronimaMP00
    |--H. alchorneoidesMP00
    |--H. clusioidesSWK87
    `--H. domingensisJ87
  CalycopeplusLK14
    |--C. collinusLK14
    `--C. paucifoliusG04a
  Erythrococca trichogyneDL07
  MonotaxisDL07
    |--M. bracteataDL07
    |--M. linifoliaN91
    |--M. luridaK90
    |--M. macrophyllaH90
    |--M. occidentalisGK00
    `--M. tenuisLK14
  KoilodepasDL07
    |--K. batamenseDL07
    `--K. longifoliumK03
  BernardiaDL07
    |--B. incanaBT72
    `--B. myricifoliaDL07
  Crepetocarpon perkinsiiXR12
  ExcoecariaB00
    |--E. acerifoliaSS72
    |--E. agallocha Linnaeus 1759HS14
    |--E. dallachyanaH90
    |--E. ovalis Endlicher 1833HS14
    `--E. parvifoliaLK14
  GavarretiaGA97
  Eremocarpus setigerusH93
  Securinegoxylon biseriatum Mädel 1962CBH93
  Crotonopollis burdwanensisCBH93
  Retitricolporites irregularisCBH93
  Friesia Spreng. 1818KC01
  Galorrheus Haw. 1812KC01
  Heterochlamys Turcz. 1843KC01
  Siphonia Rich. ex Schreb. 1791KC01
  Trichosterigma Klotzsch & Garcke 1859KC01
  Zygospermum Thwaites ex Baill. 1858KC01
  BrideliaB00 [incl. TzellemtiniaSK93]
    |--B. crenulataSR07
    |--B. cuneataDD73
    |--B. exaltataH90
    |--B. penangianaB00
    |--B. pubescensDD73
    |--B. rettisaKJ05
    |--B. scleroneuraSK93
    |--B. stipularisP03
    `--B. tomentosaB00
  Kirganelia reticulataDD73
  PimeleodendronB81
    `--‘Daphniphyllum’ conglutinosum Hemsl. 1895B81
  ChloriophyllumT-W89
  Stalagmites dulcisT-W89
  ElaeophorbiaJ54
    |--E. drupifera [=Euphorbia drupifera; incl. Eu. grandifolia]J54
    `--E. hierniiJ54

Homalanthus polyandrus (Hooker) Cheeseman 1906 [=Carumbium polyandrum Hooker 1864; incl. H. nutans Hooker 1856 (preoc.)]A61

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

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[C08] Cambage, R. H. 1908. Notes on the native flora of New South Wales. Part VI. Deepwater to Torrington and Emmaville. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33 (1): 45–65, pls 1–2.

[C16] Cambage, R. H. 1916. Notes on the native flora of tropical Queensland. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 49 (3): 389–447, pls 57–61.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C-SQ08] Carvalho-Sobrinho, J. G. de & L. P. de Queiroz. 2008. Ceiba rubriflora (Malvaceae: Bombacoideae), a new species from Bahia, Brazil. Kew Bulletin 63 (4): 649–653.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

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[DL07] Davis, C. C., M. Latvis, D. L. Nickrent, K. J. Wurdack & D. A. Baum. 2007. Floral gigantism in Rafflesiaceae. Science 315: 1812.

[DD73] Deb, D. B., & R. M. Dutta. 1973. Contribution to the flora of Tirap Frontier Division. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (3): 547–573.

[D17] Diels, L. 1917. Beiträge zur Flora der Zentral-Sahara und ihrer Pflanzengeographie. Nach der Sammelausbeute des Freiherrn Hans Geyr von Schweppenburg. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 54 (Beiblatt 120): 51–155.

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